Table 1 Comparison of the characteristics of patients without chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) or with CPSP 6 months (M6) after otorhinolaryngological (ORL) surgery.

From: A prospective cohort register-based study of chronic postsurgical pain and long-term use of pain medication after otorhinolaryngological surgery

All patients No CPSP CPSP p*
N N
All 172 19  
Gender 0.509
 Male 104 10
 Female 68 9
Surgical group 0.009
 Ear 28 2
 Paranasal sinus 21 3
 Nose 47 1
 Oral cavity 5 0
 Larynx 16 0
 Pharynx 24 6
 Esophagus 2 0
 Salivary glands 13 3
 Neck and skin 15 2
 Thyroid 1 2
OPS codes 0.020
 1–40 to 1–58 11 2
 1–61 to 1–69 13 1
 5–01 to 5–05 1 2
 5–06 to 5–07 3 2
 5–18 to 5–20 30 2
 5–21 to 5–22 65 4
 5–23 to 5–28 25 4
 5–29 to 5–31 11 0
 5–40 to 5–41 6 2
 5–42 to 5–54 2 0
 5–16, 5–77 2 0
 5–85, 5–89 to 5–92 3 0
Side of surgery 0.755
 Bilateral 96 11
 Left 39 3
 Right 37 5
Major surgical complications NA
 Yes 0 0
 No 172 19
Charlson comorbidity index 0.549
 0 98 14
 1 41 4
 2 17 0
 3 9 0
 4 6 1
 5 1 0
ASA status 0.006
 I 45 1
 II 101 10
 III 26 8
Revision surgery 0.805
 Yes 7 1
 No 165 18
Chronic pain before surgery 0.015
 Yes 38 10
 No 134 9
Pain medication before surgery 0.026
 Yes 34 8
 No 138 11
Opioids before surgery 0.093
 Yes 5 2
 No 167 17
Perioperative antibiotics 0.387
 Yes 72 6
 No 100 13
  Mean ± SD Mean ± SD  
Age, years 51.2 ± 17.1 57.7 ± 15.5 0.113
Duration of surgery, min 63.2 ± 51.7 79.9 ± 61.3 0.204
Pain at activity (NRS) at D1 2.5 ± 2.1 4.2 ± 2.6 0.001
Maximal pain (NRS) at D1 3.3 ± 2.6 4.9 ± 2.6 0.011
Minimal pain (NRS) at D1 1.0 ± 1.3 2.6 ± 1.9 < 0.001
Satisfaction with pain therapy (NRS) at D1 8.3 ± 2.7 8.8 ± 1.5 0.464
If chronic pain before surgery, intensity (NRS) D1 5.2 ± 2.1 5.7 ± 2.6 0.597
Maximal pain (NRS) at M6 0.1 ± 1.5 5.3 ± 1.8 < 0.001
Minimal pain (NRS) at M6 0.1 ± 0.4 2.2 ± 1.5 < 0.001
Average pain (NRS) at M6 0.1 ± 0.5 4.2 ± 1.3 < 0.001
Actual pain (NRS) at M6 0.1 ± 0.4 3.3 ± 2.0 < 0.001
Physical interference (NRS) at M6
 General activity 0.2 ± 0.8 4.1 ± 2.7 < 0.001
 Walking ability 0.1 ± 0.4 2.1 ± 3.0 < 0.001
 Work 0.1 ± 0.5 4.1 ± 3.3 < 0.001
Affective interference (NRS) at M6
 Mood 0.3 ± 1.0 4.5 ± 2.8 < 0.001
 Enjoyment of life 0.2 ± 0.9 4.2 ± 2.9 < 0.001
 Relations with other persons 0.2 ± 0.9 2.4 ± 3.0 < 0.001
Sleep interference (NRS) at M6 0.3 ± 1.2 4.7 ± 3.4 < 0.001
  1. NRS = numeric rating scale; OPS = Operation and Procedure Code. *Pearson’s chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test was used to compare ordinal and nominal data of patients without CPSP and with CPSP. The nonparametric Mann–Whitney-U-test was used to compare metric data.
  2. Bold values are statistically significant for p < 0.05.