Table 1 Characteristics of the 87 regions and countries used for comparison in the study. HDI = Human Development Index (the higher, the better).

From: Stay-at-home policy is a case of exception fallacy: an internet-based ecological study

Region/Country Density people/km2 Urban Pop (%) HDI Population Land area ( km2)
Controlled areas
Austria 109 57 0.914 9,014,380 82,409
Bahrain 2,239 89 0.838 1,709,919 760
Belgium 383 98 0.919 11,597,489 30,280
Berlin 4,118 100 0.950 3,669,491 891
Canada 4 81 0.922 37,793,085 9,093,510
Czech Republic 139 74 0.891 10,712,102 78,866
Denmark 137 88 0.930 5,795,391 42,430
Finland 18 86 0.925 5,542,073 303,890
City of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil 7,786 100 0.754 2,686,612 312
France 119 82 0.891 65,296,176 547,557
Germany 240 76 0.939 83,825,861 348,560
Greece 81 85 0.870 10,414,904 128,900
Hungary 107 72 0.845 9,656,450 90,530
Ireland 72 63 0.942 4,946,213 68,890
Italy 206 69 0.883 60,447,728 294,140
Japan 347 92 0.915 126,414,795 364,555
Kuwait 240 100 0.808 4,280,111 17,820
Macedonia 83 59 0.759 2,083,360 25,220
City of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil 158 100 0.737 2,219,580 11,401
Netherlands 508 92 0.934 17,140,821 33,720
New York City 10,194 100 0.941 8,336,817 784
Norway 15 83 0.954 5,427,784 365,268
Portugal 111 66 0.850 10,191,976 91,590
City of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil 5,266 100 0.799 6,747,815 1,200
Russia 9 74 0.824 145,944,331 16,376,870
Slovenia 103 55 0.902 2,078,983 20,140
South Korea 527 82 0.906 51,276,136 97,230
Spain 94 80 0.893 46,757,635 498,800
State of Acre 4 73 0.663 894,470 164,124
State of Amazonas 2 79 0.674 4,207,714 1,559,169
State of Pará 6 68 0.646 8,602,865 1,245,871
State of Roraima 2 76 0.707 631,181 223,645
Sweden 25 88 0.937 10,109,031 410,340
Switzerland 219 74 0.946 8,664,406 39,516
Tokyo, Japan 6,158 100 0.941 13,491,000 2,191
United Kingdom 279 83 0.920 67,886,011 241,930
Not controlled areas
Argentina 17 93 0.83 45,259,525 2,736,690
Australia 3 86 0.938 25,545,026 7,682,300
Belarus 47 79 0.817 9,448,832 202,910
City of Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil 7167 100 0.81 2,521,564 331
Bosnia and Herzegovina 64 52 0.769 3,277,541 51,000
Bulgaria 64 76 0.861 6,940,012 108,560
Chile 26 85 0.847 19,141,470 743,532
Colombia 46 80 0.761 50,965,881 1,109,500
Costa Rica 100 80 0.794 5,101,269 51,060
Croatia 73 58 0.837 4,101,200 55,960
Brasília, FD Brazil 444.66 96.62 0.824 3,055,149 5,761
Israel 400 93 0.906 9,197,590 21,640
Lebanon 667 78 0.73 6,820,558 10,230
Libya 4 78 0.708 6,885,460 1,759,540
Luxembourg 242 88 0.909 627,509 2,590
Moldova 105 43 0.711 4,032,473 32,850
Oman 16 87 0.834 5,125,566 309,500
Peru 26 79 0.759 33,041,424 1,280,000
Poland 124 60 0.872 37,840,045 306,230
City of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil 2837.53 100 0.805 1,488,252 495
Qatar 248 96 0.848 2,807,805 11,610
Romania 84 55 0.816 19,217,049 230,170
City of São Paulo, SP, Brazil 7398.26 100 0.805 12,325,232 1,521
Saudi Arabia 16 84 0.857 34,895,566 2,149,690
Serbia 100 56 0.799 8,731,751 87,460
State of Alagoas 112.23 73.64 0.631 3,351,543 27,843
State of Amapá 4.69 89.81 0.708 861,773 142,471
State of Bahia 24.82 72.07 0.66 14,930,634 564,760
State of Ceará 56.76 75.09 0.682 9,187,103 148,894
State of Espírito Santo 76.25 85.29 0.74 4,064,052 46,074
State of Goiás 17.65 90.29 0.735 7,113,540 340,203
State of Maranhão 19.81 63.07 0.639 7,114,598 329,642
State of Mato Grosso 3.36 81.9 0.725 3,526,220 903,207
State of Mato Grosso do Sul 6.86 85.64 0.729 2,809,394 357,146
State of Minas Gerais 33.41 83.38 0.731 21,292,666 586,521
State of Paraíba 66.7 75.37 0.658 4,039,277 56,467
State of Paraná 52.4 85.31 0.749 11,516,840 199,299
State of Pernambuco 89.63 80.15 0.673 9,616,621 98,068
State of Piauí 12.4 65.77 0.646 3,281,480 251,757
State of Rio de Janeiro 365.23 96.71 0.761 17,264,943 43,750
State of Rio Grande do Norte 59.99 77.82 0.684 3,534,165 52,810
State of Rio Grande do Sul 37.96 85.1 0.746 11,422,973 281,707
State of Rondônia 6.58 73.22 0.69 1,796,460 237,765
State of Santa Catarina 65.27 83.99 0.774 7,252,502 95,731
State of São Paulo 166.23 95.88 0.783 46,289,333 248,219
State of Sergipe 94.35 73.51 0.665 2,318,822 21,925
State of Tocantins 4.98 78.81 0.699 1,590,248 277,467
Turkey 110 76 0.807 84,477,895 769,630
Ukraine 75 69 0.75 43,691,576 579,320
United Arab Emirates 118 86 0.866 9,908,607 83,600
United States of America 36 82 0.92 331,303,997 9,834,000