Table 1 Inclusion and Exclusion criteria.

From: Nonsurgical treatment outcomes for surgical candidates with lumbar disc herniation: a comprehensive cohort study

Inclusion criteria  ≥ 18 years of age
Symptomatic single-level lumbar disc herniation (LDH) (protrusion, extrusion, or sequestration) documented by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) taken within 3 months from the clinic visit date
Intractable leg pain of more than 5/10 on a visual analogue scale (VAS) for at least 6 weeks despite active non-surgical treatments such as exercise, physiotherapy, medications, or epidural injections
Concordant neurological symptoms and signs such as numbness, radiating pain, mild weakness (stronger than manual motor power grade IV/V), and/or limitations on the straight leg raise test (< 60°)
Voluntarily agree to study participation and sign a written informed consent form
Fully understand the details of a clinical study and those who are cooperative
Exclusion criteria Combined significant weakness (motor power grade ≤ 3/5) or cauda equina syndrome, segmental instability (angular motion ≥ 15° and/or translation ≥ 4 mm)
Trauma-associated LDH
Combined neurological disease (such as Parkinson disease), inflammatory joint disease, tumor, infection, and neuropathy
Previous history of spinal surgery
Pregnancy