Model robustness for flood exposure. (a) Fraction of the global population exposed to potential floods using CMIP5 and CMIP6 corresponding to a SWL relative to the preindustrial period. The mean and maximum and minimum ranges among AOGCMs (lines and shaded area, respectively) are shown. (b) As (a), but for a subset of 6 models from 6 institutions participating in both CMIP5 and CMIP6 (Supplementary Tables S1 and S2). The population distribution is fixed at the 2015 level.