Panels A through C report the ratio of COVID-19 YLL rates over influenza YLL rates (in median/maximum deadly years by country), traffic accidents, and heart conditions respectively. Panel D reports, countries with available data, the ratio of YLL rates of COVID-19 deaths over YLL rates of excess deaths. When two causes of mortality affect YLL equally, the ratio is precisely 1; larger ratio values suggest COVID-19 YLL rates are higher than the alternative cause. Average ratios in vertical lines in each panel. Each country name is followed by (in parentheses) the number of days passed since the country’s first official COVID-case up to the last day of available COVID-19 deaths data for that country. Countries always sorted by ratio of COVID-19 YLL vs seasonal flu (in median years) across panels for ease of reading.