Abstract
Magnetic skyrmions are whirllike nanoobjects with topological protection. When driven by direct currents, skyrmions move but experience a transverse deflection. This socalled skyrmion Hall effect is often regarded a drawback for memory applications. Herein, we show that this unique effect can also be favorable for spintronic applications: We show that in a racetrack with a broken inversion symmetry, the skyrmion Hall effect allows to translate an alternating current into a directed motion along the track, like in a ratchet. We analyze several modes of the ratchet mechanism and show that it is unique for topological magnetic whirls. We elaborate on the fundamental differences compared to the motion of topologically trivial magnetic objects, as well as classical particles driven by periodic forces. Depending on the exact racetrack geometry, the ratchet mechanism can be soft or strict. In the latter case, the skyrmion propagates close to the efficiency maximum.
Similar content being viewed by others
Introduction
When spatial symmetries in a physical system are broken, periodic or even randomly oriented perturbations can lead to a net force and a directed propagation^{1}. For example, a charged particle in a periodic but asymmetric environment, can be driven by an alternating electric field; it will move stepbystep from one energy minimum to the next minimum along the direction with the smaller potential gradient. This socalled ratchet mechanism has been widely explored, especially for using thermal fluctuations to drive molecular motors^{2, 3} or even in spintronics to unidirectionally move magnetic solitons in a shift register^{4} or to drive spins with alternating voltages^{5, 6}.
Besides analyzing individual spins, over the recent decade, the applicability of noncollinear spin textures in spintronics has been explored intensively. For example, the ratchet propulsion^{7,8,9} and diode behavior of magnetic domain walls have been investigated^{10}. Herein, we consider fundamentally different spin textures: the nanosized magnetic skyrmions^{11,12,13} which are whirllike magnetic objects that possess particlelike properties. Their integer topological charge^{14}
brings about a topologically enforced stability of skyrmions. Even under deformation, their unique properties remain.
For this reason, skyrmions are often considered to become bits in racetrack data storage devices in the future^{15,16,17,18,19,20}. This concept is based on the controlled generation and electrical motion of bits in thin nanostripes; the presence versus the absence of magnetic skyrmions at predefined positions corresponds to ‘1’ and ‘0’ bits. Since the racetrack operates purely electrically and since skyrmions can be driven by very small current densities^{21}, the racetrack is advantageous compared to typical RAM or HDD memories^{16}. However, due to the topological charge of the skyrmions, the objects do not move parallel to the applied current but are deflected towards the edge of the racetrack^{14, 22,23,24,25,26}.
An enormous effort has been undertaken to find solutions for suppressing this so called skyrmion Hall effect, for example modifying the spin torque^{27, 28} or using alternative magnetic quasiparticles^{29} with a vanishing topological charge (like antiferromagnetic skyrmions^{30,31,32,33,34,35} or skyrmioniums^{36,37,38}) or nanoobjects with a broken rotational symmetry (like antiskyrmions^{39, 40} or bimerons^{28, 41, 42}). However, as we show in the present paper, the skyrmion Hall effect may even be a favorable feature that can be utilized instead of trying to suppress it.
We simulate a skyrmion ratchet that is driven by temporally periodic electric currents. By breaking the mirror symmetry of the racetrack along the racetrack’s width y (i. e. a broken mirror axis along the racetrack direction x), the skyrmion Hall effect translates the alternating current into a directed motion along the track (x direction, as indicated in Fig. 1). While in symmetric racetracks the skyrmion can only move when direct currents (DC) are applied, the modified setup allows to operate a racetrack with alternating currents (AC). As we will show, this ratchet mechanism is strongly tied to the nontrivial topology of the skyrmions.
Using the inate topological properties of skyrmions is in contrast to other predicted skyrmion ratchet devices that rely on asymmetric anisotropy gradients^{43} or pinning sites^{44} along the racetrack, or on using skyrmionshape modulations to generate a weak net forces from periodic magnetic fields^{45, 46}. Instead, the here presented approach, based on the topology of skyrmions, is more related to the observed directed rotation of a skyrmion lattice due to thermal fluctuations of the chiral spin texture^{47} and to the recently predicted skyrmion diode^{48, 49} that allows for skyrmion propagation only along one direction when a current is applied. The results are related to the Magnusinduced dynamics of skyrmions and other particles as reported in Refs.^{50, 51}. However, since here a confined geometry is used instead of periodic boundary conditions, the role of the asymmetric confinement becomes relevant for translating an AC current into a directed propulsion (anti)parallel to it.
Results
Skyrmion motion in symmetric racetracks
When physical objects are driven by periodic external forces, they will exhibit an oscillating motion. A net propulsion is only possible when the motion is not equivalent along the two opposite directions, e. g. due to friction or an asymmetric potential. The same applies to the motion of magnetic spin textures under the influence of spin torques. The motion of a magnetic skyrmion under spinorbit torques is simulated by propagating the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation^{52,53,54} of every magnetization cell (see Methods section for details). We use this method throughout this paper and present micromagnetic simulations for which we have employed mumax3^{55, 56}. To establish a better understanding of the results of these simulations and the underlying mechanisms, the motion of a skyrmion will also be effectively described by the Thiele equation^{57, 58}
This description condenses the nanoobject to a single point positioned at \(\varvec{r}\). The noncollinearities of a skyrmion are covered by the topological charge \(N_{\rm Sk}\), the dissipative tensor \(D_{ij}=\int \partial _{x_i}\varvec{m}(\varvec{r})\cdot \partial _{x_j}\varvec{m}(\varvec{r})\,\mathrm{d}^2r\) and the torque tensor \(I_{ij}=\int [\partial _{x_i}\varvec{m}(\varvec{r})\times \varvec{m}(\varvec{r})]_{x_j}\,\mathrm{d}^2r\) that only have to be calculated once, as long as the skyrmion does not significantly changes its shape during propagation. The first term of the Thiele equation (1) describes a transverse motion due to the topological charge \(N_{\rm Sk}\). The second term describes dissipation, since the dissipative tensor \(\underline{D}\) is typically diagonal. The coefficients are: Gilbert damping \(\alpha\) and \(b=M_sd_z/\gamma _e\), where \(M_s\) is the saturation magnetization, \(d_z\) the thickness of the magnetic layer and \(\gamma _e\) the gyromagnetic ratio.
The spinorbit torque enters the third term. If one considers an interface of a ferromagnet and a heavy metal (like Co/Pt, as we will consider in the following; cf. Fig. 1), an applied current (density \(\varvec{j}\)) flows mainly in the heavy metal. Here, the spin Hall effect leads to the injection of spins \(\varvec{s}\) into the ferromagnet from the perpendicular direction. These spins exhibit a torque onto the magnetic moments that constitute a magnetic skyrmion. The moments reorient collectively and the center coordinate of the skyrmion \(\varvec{r}\) can change. In the coordinate system that is defined in Fig. 1 we assume a current flowing along the racetrack \(\varvec{j}\parallel \pm \varvec{e}_x\) that leads to the injection of spins \(\varvec{s}\parallel \mp \varvec{e}_y\) (dimensionless quantity; the sign depends on the sign of the spin Hall conductivity). The efficiency \(B=\frac{\hbar }{2e}\Theta _{\rm SH}\) of the spinorbit torque depends on the spin Hall angle \(\Theta _{\rm SH}\).
The right side of the Thiele equation (1) describes the interaction of the nanoobject with other noncollinear spin textures, defects (attractive or repulsive)^{59,60,61,62,63}, or with the confinement^{27, 64}. Here, we consider no defects and no other spin textures but only the repulsive interaction with the confinement. In a symmetric racetrack, the potential is symmetric along the racetrack width \(U(y)=U(y)\) giving rise to antisymmetric forces \(\varvec{F}_{\rm edge}=\nabla U(\varvec{r})\) along the \(\pm y\) direction. This means the confinement always pushes the object to the center. Furthermore, this symmetric potential does not directly generate forces along the racetrack direction x. Note, however, that it still affects \(\dot{\varvec{r}}\) and therefore also the orientation of the gyroscopic force. This indirectly leads to an acceleration of the motion along the racetrack direction when a skyrmion slides along the edge (cf. Supplementary Fig. 1). However, this effect is symmetric: When a spin texture, topologically trivial or not, is driven by a periodic current in this environment, the net motion vanishes.
We visualized this scenario for the example of a Néel skyrmion in a Co/Pt sample in Fig. 2a. The symmetry of this texture (only \(D\equiv D_{xx}=D_{yy}\ne 0\) and \(I\equiv I_{xy}=I_{yx}\ne 0\)) simplifies the Thiele equation to
with \(\varvec{F}_{\rm edge}=F(y)\varvec{e}_y\), due to the symmetric racetrack. Since the magnetic background is magnetized along the positive z direction, \(N_{\rm Sk}=1\). The motion has been simulated using micromagnetic simulations in Fig. 2a. For details and the simulation parameters of the Co/Pt bilayer we refer to the Methods section.
In this simulation and throughout the paper, we consider a periodic current \(\varvec{j}=j_{x,\mathrm{max}}\sin (\frac{2\pi }{T}t)\varvec{e}_x\). Starting from \(t=0\,\mathrm{ns}\), a positive current is applied. Consequently, the skyrmion is pushed towards the upper edge (positive x and y direction of motion). This partially transverse motion is the signature of the skyrmion Hall effect and is caused by the gyroscopic force: the first term in the Thiele equation (1). The trajectory of the skyrmion follows the skyrmion Hall angle \(\theta _{\rm sk}=\arctan \frac{4\pi N_{\rm Sk}}{\alpha D}\approx 70.0^\circ\), numerically determined from \(D=15.3\) for the used simulation parameters. Once the skyrmion reaches the edge, it can survive and glide along the edge of the racetrack (x direction). The edge potential U contributes a force \(\varvec{F}_{\rm edge}\) along \(y\), to the middle of the racetrack, so that the gyroscopic force is compensated. Note that there exists a critical current density beyond which the gyroscopic force becomes too large so that the skyrmion annihilates at the edge. Furthermore, for current densities close to \(j_{x,\mathrm{max}}\), the skyrmion deforms due to the fast propagation. As a consequence, the tensors \(\underline{D}\) and \(\underline{I}\) change which affects \(\theta _{\rm sk}\) slightly, as was analyzed in Ref.^{58}. Here, the current density \(j_{x,\mathrm{max}}\) is sufficiently small, so that the skyrmion remains stable and does not significantly deform.
After half a period T/2, the transient process has been completed and the skyrmion starts to oscillate in a closed loop (Fig. 2a): First, the current becomes negative, so the skyrmion moves along the negative \(x\) and \(y\) directions towards the lower edge where it glides along the \(x\) direction. After a full period T, the current becomes positive again, so that the skyrmion starts to move back to the upper edge of the racetrack. On average, no net motion has been achieved. This is true for all period durations T and all reasonable current densities \(j_{x,\mathrm{max}}\).
Skyrmion ratchet mechanism in asymmetric racetracks
To achieve a net motion, the racetrack’s symmetry has to be broken. Here, the confinement potential \(U(\varvec{r})\)^{65,66,67,68} plays an important role, because it can introduce \(\varvec{F}_{\rm edge}\) components along the racetrack. The racetrack geometry has to be modified. However, since the racetrack has to extend (in principle) infinitely along x, the geometry manipulation can only be periodic. In Fig. 1 the considered geometry is presented: One edge of the racetrack remains straight while the other is periodically modulated. Depending on the position of the nanoobject, it experiences a force component along \(+x\) or \(x\).
However, for topologically trivial objects, \(N_{\rm Sk}=0\), like the skyrmionium^{36,37,38} (one skyrmion inside of an oppositely magnetized other skyrmion), this does not generate a net driving force because the modified potential only periodically decelerated and accelerates the object: The skyrmionium experiences hardly any transverse deflection and the decelerating and accelerating forces from the boundaries cancel on average over time. As a consequence, the skyrmionium merely oscillates periodically, cf. Fig. 2b.
However, when we consider a skyrmion \(N_{\rm Sk}=1\) in the modified geometry, a net motion is observable, as is presented in Fig. 3. After the first transient period \(T=80\,\mathrm{ns}\) of the alternating current (cyan and orange trajectories), the skyrmion effectively moves one spatial period \(L=240\,\mathrm{nm}\) per current period (Fig. 3a) and oscillates around the average motion coordinate on a quasiperiodic trajectory (blue and red in Fig. 3b). The average velocity is determined by the geometry and the current period \(\overline{\varvec{v}}=L/T\,\varvec{e}_x=3.0\frac{\mathrm{m}}{\mathrm{s}}\,\varvec{e}_x\) (slope of the dashed line in Fig. 3b).
The quasiperiodic motion can be characterized by the \(x'\)\(v_x\) diagram in Fig. 3c, where \(x'=x\overline{v}_xt\) is the relative x coordinate with respect to the coordinate of the average motion. After the first transient period (cyan and orange in Fig. 3c), the curve exhibits several almost identical closed loops (blue and red). The skyrmion moves on a periodic trajectory with respect to the position corresponding to the average motion.
We start our detailed discussion of the propulsion mechanism at \(t=80\,\mathrm{ns}\) which is at the end of the first period T. This is because the first period constitutes a transient process because we start from a skyrmion in the center of its respective pocket and end up with a skyrmion that is positioned at the left side of the next pocket.
The motion during the first half of the period T/2 is equivalent to the motion of the skyrmion in the symmetric racetrack; cf. Fig. 2a. The skyrmion moves towards the upper edge and glides along the positive x direction. The current parameters have been chosen such that the skyrmion has moved about \(1.5\,L\), so that it is now positioned a the very right of the next racetrack pocket. For the next half period T/2, the current becomes negative and the skyrmion moves towards the lower edge where \(\varvec{F}_{\rm edge}\) depends strongly on the x coordinate and even changes its orientation. The skyrmion moves along the whole modulated bottom edge of this pocket until the end of the first period is reached. The skyrmion ends up at the left of that pocket. Over the course of one period it has moved one pocket to the right.
The key ingredient of any ratchet mechanism is to break the balance between forwards and backwards propagation. Here, the edge mediated force \(\varvec{F}_{\rm edge}\) accelerates the forwards motion but decelerates most parts of the backwards motion. This can be comprehended in detail in Fig. 3c.
Different propagation modes
The presented propulsion is parameter dependent. So far, the current parameters have been chosen such that a wellperiodic motion is achieved. In the following, we investigate the influence of the current period T and the amplitude \(j_{x,\mathrm{max}}\) and present several propagation modes.
We start with the T dependence when the current is kept constant \(j_{x,\mathrm{max}}\Theta _{\rm SH}=3.0\,\mathrm{MA}/\mathrm{cm}^2\); see Fig. 4a. We simulate the skyrmion motion for the time span of 4T and determine the traveled distance. This results in the blue data points for the average traveled distance \(\Delta x\). For the determination of the red data points we have waited until a steady motion was reached to exclude the effect of transient processes that will be mentioned in the following.
When the period T is too small, no net propulsion is achieved. The skyrmion only oscillates in the starting pocket. For periods starting from \(60\,\mathrm{ns}\), one finds that the initial period leads to a single skyrmion step. However, thereafter, the skyrmion merely oscillates in that pocket. This is a signature of the transient process in the beginning of the simulation: The first period behaves differently compared to the following periods because of inequivalent starting positions.
Starting from \(T=75\,\mathrm{ns}\), the skyrmion always travels one step per period, as was extensively analyzed in Fig. 3. For larger periods, even multiple steps per periods can be achieved. In Fig. 4d a twostep propulsion mode is shown for \(T=150\,\mathrm{ns}\). It becomes apparent that the skyrmion actually travels three steps forwards and one step backwards indicating a softratchet behavior. For periods in between, one finds again signatures of the transient dynamics and nonperiodic behavior; Fig. 4c: During the first periods, the skyrmion travels 2L and thereafter it only travels 1L per period. This results in different values for the blue and red data points in Fig. 4a, including and excluding the initial transient process, respectively. Generally speaking, by increasing the period, the traveled distance increases per period: In Fig. 4e,f three and fourstep propagation modes are presented for the periods \(T=175\,\mathrm{ns}\) and \(T=250\,\mathrm{ns}\), respectively. For the latter mode, the skyrmion actually travels 6 steps forwards and 2 steps backwards, again showing that the mechanism corresponds to a soft ratchet.
As mentioned above, in the top diagram in Fig. 4a the average skyrmion propulsion distance is shown. It roughly shows a linear dependence but with several plateaus. In the bottom diagram the velocity is visualized, i. e. the distance has been normalized by the period T. Especially at higher T, the curve is almost constant meaning that the period does not allow to tune the average velocity significantly but it allows to tune the mode of propagation, i. e., the number of steps per period.
In Fig. 4b the current density dependence of the average traveled distance is presented for a fixed \(T=80\,\mathrm{ns}\). Again, the dependence is roughly linear and several plateaus are present due to the ratchet nature of the propulsion mechanism. The curve increases up to about \(10.5\,\mathrm{MA}/\mathrm{cm}^2\). Beyond this current density, the skyrmion becomes unstable and annihilates at the edge of the racetrack (gray area). In contrast to the T dependence in panel a, here, an increase in the traveled distance actually means that the velocity increases. The average velocity increases up to \(\sim 10\,\mathrm{m}/\mathrm{s}\) which is however still much lower than the velocity of a skyrmion driven by an equivalent direct current of \(j_{\rm DC}\Theta _{\rm SH}=10/\sqrt{2}\,\mathrm{MA}/\mathrm{cm}^2\) corresponding to \(v_x=46.4\,\mathrm{m}/\mathrm{s}\) (cf. Supplementary Fig. 2 for the simulation). The reason is that the skyrmions follow a soft ratchet mechanism that is distinct from typical classical ratchet mechanisms and not as efficient. In the following, we investigate this unique mechanism in more detail and show that it can be turned into a strict and more efficient ratchet mechanism by tweaking the racetrack geometry.
Comparison to classical ratchet mechanisms
Especially from the simulations at larger periods, it becomes apparent that the ratchet is soft: Backwards motion is allowed, even multiple steps at a time. The average velocity is essentially determined by the difference in paths for the forwards motion at the upper edge and the backwards motion at the lower racetrack edge. The average velocity is quite far from the ideal velocity of a strict ratchet that would be half the velocity of a skyrmion driven by a direct current with the magnitude \(j_{x,\mathrm{max}}/\sqrt{2}\).
To further understand how and why the skyrmion ratchet mechanism differs from a strict ratchet, we investigate a simple toymodel of a strict ratchet in a geometry similar to ours
Here \(m=1\,\mathrm{kg}\) is the mass, \(\varvec{F}_{\rm drive}\) is a periodic driving force, \(\xi =0.02\,\mathrm{kg}/\mathrm{s}\) is the friction constant, and \(U(\varvec{r})\) is a potential that is qualitatively similar to the potential of a skyrmion in the asymmetric racetrack; cf. color code in Fig. 5a (analytical expression given in the Methods section). The model is chosen such that it resembles the propagation mode of the skyrmion to a certain extend so that the differences between the two ratchet mechanisms become apparent. A physical system that would follow this equation of motion is a ball rolling in an asymmetrically shaped bowl, as shown in Fig. 5a. By tilting the bowl periodically back and forth at an angle, the ball can travel a net distance; cf. Fig. 5a–c.
Comparing this equation of motion with the Thiele equation (1) describing a skyrmions, both equations have a friction or dissipation term antiparallel to the velocity \(\propto \dot{\varvec{r}}\) and an interaction with the asymmetric potential \(U(\varvec{r})\). The main difference is that the classical model has a mass term \(m\ddot{\varvec{r}}\) while the Thiele equation is massless and instead has a gyroscopic term which is always perpendicular to the skyrmion velocity \(4\pi N_{\rm Sk}b\,\varvec{e}_z\times \dot{\varvec{r}}\). Furthermore, both systems are driven by a periodic driving force. However, this force points along \(\pm x\) for the skyrmion but is chosen to point at an angle for the classical model (cf. Fig. 5d).
In Fig. 5b a onestep propagation mode is shown for the toy model. The trajectory is similar to the skyrmionic case but for the the second halfperiod (red) the particle is not moving backwards along the lower edge but it is pushed towards that edge and remains almost stationary.
When the period T of the periodic force is increased, different propagation modes can be achieved. Exemplarily, in Fig. 5c a threestep mode is shown. Here, the particle moves three steps forwards in the first halfperiod (blue) and remains almost stationary in the second half period (red). This behavior is drastically different to the skyrmion propagation mode at high T, where the skyrmion moves backwards one or even multiple cells when the current is negative; cf. Fig. 4d–f.
The reason for this different behavior can be understood by investigating all individual forces for free classical particles and skyrmions, as well as both objects close to the edge. In the case of a free classical particle, the motion occurs parallel to the driving force (Fig. 5d). The only other force is the friction force that is always antiparallel to the velocity. When the particle approaches the edge, a new force becomes significant (Fig. 5e): This is \(\varvec{F}_{\rm edge}=\nabla U(\varvec{r})\). The particle moves closer and closer to the edge until \(\varvec{F}_{\rm edge}\) and \(\varvec{F}_{\rm drive}\) compensate each other. For the considered geometry, the particle cannot move to the cell to the left because it would have to overcome an energy barrier.
For the skyrmion in the free case (Fig. 5f), the motion is similar to a classical particle. However, as explained above, the velocity is not parallel to the driving force (that is here along \(\pm \varvec{x}\)) but the topological charge leads to the emergence of a gyroscopic force that leads to a deflection towards the edge. When the skyrmion approaches the lower edge, an edge force \(\varvec{F}_{\rm edge}=\nabla U(\varvec{r})\) becomes significant just as for the classical particle. However, since this force affects the velocity, also the gyroscopic force changes its orientation (the reader is reminded that the gyroscopic force is always perpendicular to the velocity). As a consequence, when the skyrmion is pushed towards the edge, there is no total equilibrium of forces but a net force parallel to the edge once the skyrmion moves in a steady state close to the edge, as in indicated in Fig. 5g. The skyrmion will creep along the edge into the next pocket as was shown in the micromagnetic simulations in Fig. 4d–f.
Motivated by the motion of the skyrmion parallel to both edges (deformed and undeformed), one can argue that the skyrmion moves in a topological edge channel. This mode of propulsion is also the reason why skyrmions can avoid defects, as has been simulated for example in Ref.^{18}. Note, that the interaction with skyrmions can be repulsive but also attractive^{59}. For this reason, skyrmions can also be trapped by defects^{60,61,62,63}.
Furthermore, it is worth mentioning that these edge chanels are fundamentally different from those that have been discussed for frustrated magnets in Ref.^{69}. In that reference, the magnetization modulations close to the edge of the sample give rise to local minima in the potential \(U(\varvec{r})\). In the DMI mediated systems that we discuss here, such minima are absent and the distance of a steadystate skyrmion to the edge is even dependent on its velocity.
Constructing a strict skyrmion ratchet
The above presented ratchet behavior is interesting from a fundamental point of view because it shows new propagation dynamics distinct from classical strict ratchets. However, for typical spintronic applications it is unfavorable due to the low efficiency. The maximum velocity, determined in Fig. 4b is around \(10\,\mathrm{m}/\mathrm{s}\) for \(j_{x,\mathrm{max}}\Theta _{\rm SH}=10\,\mathrm{MA}/\mathrm{cm}^2\), while a skyrmion driven by equivalent direct currents \(j_{x,\mathrm{DC}}\Theta _{\rm SH}=10/\sqrt{2}\,\mathrm{MA}/\mathrm{cm}^2\) moves at \(46.4\,\mathrm{m}/\mathrm{s}\) (simulation presented in Supplementary Fig. 2). Therefore, now we present how the asymmetric racetrack geometry can be altered to achieve a strict skyrmion ratchet that allows for a faster propagation.
Ideally, in a strict ratchet 50% of the energy is used for forwards translation and the remaining 50% is not used for backwards translation. To achieve this for the skyrmion, firstly the backwards motion must be suppressed, like in the toy model for the classical particle; cf. Fig. 5b,c. We achieve this by narrowing the pockets of the racetrack at the top; cf. Fig. 6a. While we have presented that skyrmions can creep up vertical walls – different from the classical particle in the toy model – there exists a limit. A skyrmion cannot creep along the horizontal edges at the top of the pockets and it gets stuck in the corners (Fig. 6a).
In Fig. 6b–d the onestep propagation mode and two multistep propagation modes are shown. A direct comparison with the softratchet mechanism in the initial geometry (Fig. 4c–f) shows that the strict ratchet mechanism can be much more efficient, since backwards propagation can only occur inside of a single pocket. In panel b, for \(T=85\,\mathrm{ns}\), the skyrmion moves one cell size \(L=240\,\mathrm{nm}\) per period. This type of motion is as efficient as the motion in the initial geometry, because there backwards propagation was only occurring within a single pocket. For higher T, the new geometry becomes more efficient. For example, in Fig. 6c, for \(T=150\,\mathrm{ns}\), the skyrmion moves 3L per period while it moved only 2L in the initial geometry (cf. Fig. 4d; 3L forward and 1L backwards).
To optimize the efficiency of the mechanism, the time for moving into and out of the pockets must be minimized in relation to the period. We achieve this by increasing the period duration T. In the simulation shown in Fig. 6d we have used \(j_{x,\mathrm{max}}\Theta _{\rm SH}=10\,\mathrm{MA}/\mathrm{cm}^2\) and \(T=1\,\mu \mathrm{s}\) as an extreme case. Within one period the skyrmion moves 84 cell sizes to the right and not a single cell to the left which corresponds to an average velocity of \(20.2\,\mathrm{m}/\mathrm{s}\). This velocity is much faster than what was predicted in the skyrmion ratchets mentioned in the introduction^{43,44,45,46} and is also twice as fast as the skyrmion propulsion driven by the soft ratchet mechanism presented above. The determined average velocity is \(43.5\%\) of the velocity of a skyrmion driven by an equivalent direct current \(j_{x,\mathrm{DC}}\Theta _{\rm SH}=10/\sqrt{2}\,\mathrm{MA}/\mathrm{cm}^2\). This skyrmion moves at \(46.4\,\mathrm{m}/\mathrm{s}\) (simulation presented in Supplementary Figure 2), which corresponds to the dashed line in Fig. 6e. In the first half period of the AC simulation, this velocity is reached. The established strict skyrmion ratchet is close to the efficiency maximum of \(50\%\). It can be increased even further when T is increased.
Discussion
We have shown that the skyrmion Hall effect can be utilized to drive topologically nontrivial spin textures by AC currents, when the racetrack is not mirrorsymmetric. The skyrmion Hall effect delivers the periodic oscillation of the y coordinate; entering and exiting the pockets at the bottom edge of the racetrack at the beginning and the end of the negative current halfperiod. While the skyrmion moves freely along the racetrack for positive current densities, the backwards motion is decelerated when the current is negative. This leads to a net motion of one or even multiple racetrack pockets per period. This mechanism allows to precisely tune the skyrmion velocity because in a stable regime it is determined (besides by the propagation mode) by the current period and the cell size \(\overline{v}=n\cdot L/T\), with \(n=0,1,2,\dots\).
The fundamental origin of the mechanism is the gyroscopic force that arises due to the topological charge, similar to what has been described in Refs.^{50, 51}, and the asymmetric environment that is here constituted by a modified racetrack geometry. Both ingredients together lead to a directed motion of skyrmions parallel to an alternating current. Since this motion relies on the topological properties of the spin textures, this ratchet mechanism can also be used to distinguish or even separate different types of spin objects. Topologically trivial skyrmioniums, bubbles or domain walls, for example, could be separated from skyrmions.
Furthermore, due to the periodic racetrack geometry, a skyrmionbit stream is ‘discretized’ in the sense that once the current is turned off, a skyrmion will always relax to the middle of a pocket. Its position is much less susceptible to interactions with other skyrmions or random motion due to thermal fluctuation compared to conventional racetrack data storage designs. Also, this makes a controlled writing and reading of the bits more convenient.
Especially for the propagation of multiple racetrack pockets per period it became apparent that the skyrmion follows a soft ratchet mechanism which means that backwards propagation is possible. This is in contrast to the typical strict ratchet that we have simulated using classical equations of motion. The main difference between the two systems is that the skyrmion’s equation of motion, the Thiele equation, does not contain a mass term but a gyroscopic force that is always oriented perpendicular to the velocity of the skyrmion. For this reason, a skyrmion close to the edge will not experience a balance of forces but is pushed parallel to the edge and moves like in an edge channel.
This behavior is fundamentally interesting, because it reveals the special properties of skyrmions based on their nontrivial topology. However, due to the comparably slow propagation, it is technologically unfavorable for typical racetrack applications. Therefore, we have also shown that this behavior can be suppressed. By tweaking the racetrack pockets, the backwards propagation can be completely suppressed, so that almost half of the energy of the alternating current can be used for propagation. We have simulated average velocities of over \(20\,\mathrm{m}/\mathrm{s}\) which is faster than what was reported for the skyrmion ratchets mentioned in the introduction^{43,44,45,46}.
In summary, we have shown that skyrmionbased racetrack storage devices can be operated by alternating currents via a ratchet mechanism. While our study is concerned with single skyrmions in a single track, it would also be important to design logic circuits for AC driven skyrmions which may be more difficult than for DC driven skyrmions. Furthermore, technical difficulties like the preparation of the periodically modified track edges and the reduced velocity need to be overcome in order to realize such a device. Still, using alternating currents instead of direct currents has proven to be advantageous in conventional electronics and further increases the technological significance of skyrmions for spintronics.
Methods
Micromagnetic simulations
The micromagnetic simulations have been conducted according to the Lifshitz–Gilbert equation (LLG)^{52,53,54}
This equation has been propagated using the micromagnetic simulation code mumax3^{55, 56}.
The LLG equation includes the gyromagnetic ratio of an electron \(\gamma _e=\gamma /\mu _0=1.760\times 10^{11}\,\mathrm{T}^{1}\mathrm{s}^{1}\), the inplane torque coefficient \(\epsilon \beta =\frac{\hbar j\Theta _{\rm SH}}{2ed_zM_s}\), the Gilbert damping coefficient \(\alpha =0.3\) and the effective magnetic field \(\varvec{B}_{i,\mathrm{eff}}=\delta _{\varvec{m}_i}F/M_s\). This field accounts for all magnetic interactions and it is determined by the free energy density F. For this energy we have included the exchange interaction, the interfacial DzyaloshinskiiMoriya interaction^{70, 71} (DMI), a uniaxial anisotropy and the effect of the demagnetization field.
The parameters for CoPt have been taken from Ref.^{18}: exchange stiffness \(J=15\,\mathrm{pJ}/\mathrm{m}\), DMI constant \(D=3\,\mathrm{mJ}/\mathrm{m}^2\), uniaxial anisotropy \(K_z=0.8\,\mathrm{MJ}/\mathrm{m}^3\), saturation magnetization \(M_s=0.58\,\mathrm{MA}/\mathrm{m}\). Only for the simulation of the skyrmionium in Fig. 2b we have increased the DMI constant to \(D=3.5\,\mathrm{mJ}/\mathrm{m}^2\), as was suggested in Ref.^{36}. The spin Hall angle is \(\Theta _{\rm SH}=0.3\).
In Fig. 2 of the main paper, the racetrack dimension are \(1200\,\mathrm{nm}\times 240\,\mathrm{nm}\times 2\,\mathrm{nm}\). The added pockets are characterized by circles with a diameter of \(120\,\mathrm{nm}\), as indicated in Fig. 1. In Figs. 3 and 4c,d,e the simulated length has been increased to \(1920\,\mathrm{nm}\). In Fig. 1a,b the simulated length is only \(240\,\mathrm{nm}\) to speed up the simulation. In Fig. 6b,c the simulated length is \(1920\,\mathrm{nm}\) as well, and in Fig. 6d \(960\,\mathrm{nm}\) and the sizes of the rectangular pockets are given in Fig. 6a. In all simulations, periodic boundary conditions have been considered along the track direction. The cell sizes are \(2\,\mathrm{nm}\times 2\,\mathrm{nm}\times 2\,\mathrm{nm}\).
Toy model
For the simulation of the toy model we have propagated the equation of motion
The parameters are: mass \(m=1\,\mathrm{kg}\), friction constant \(\xi =0.02\,\mathrm{kg}/\mathrm{s}\), periodic driving force \(\varvec{F}_{\rm drive}=40\,\mathrm{mN}\sin (\frac{2\pi }{T})\varvec{e}\) with \(\varvec{e}=\cos (50^\circ )\varvec{e}_x+\sin (50^\circ )\varvec{e}_y\) and \(T=650\,\mathrm{s}\) for the 1step mode (Fig. 5b) and \(T=1950\,\mathrm{s}\) for the 3step mode (Fig. 5c). The potential is
This potential has been constructed to account for the asymmetric geometry. The amplitude is \(U_0=1\,\mathrm{J}\) and the lattice constant is \(L=240\,\mathrm{m}\).
Data availibility
Data that support the findings of this work are available from the corresponding author on request.
Code availability
For the micromagnetic simulations we used the opensource code mumax3 available at https://mumax.github.io/. The classical ratchet model has been propagated using a Mathematica code developed for this purpose.
References
Feynman, R. P., Leighton, R. B. & Sands, M. The Feynman Lectures on Physics ch. 46 vol. 1 (1966).
Reimann, P. Brownian motors: noisy transport far from equilibrium. Phys. Rep. 361, 57–265 (2002).
Hänggi, P. & Marchesoni, F. Artificial Brownian motors: controlling transport on the nanoscale. Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 387 (2009).
Lavrijsen, R. et al. Magnetic ratchet for threedimensional spintronic memory and logic. Nature 493, 647–650 (2013).
Flatté, M. E. A oneway street for spin current. Nat. Phys. 4, 587–588 (2008).
Costache, M. V. & Valenzuela, S. O. Experimental spin ratchet. Science 330, 1645–1648 (2010).
Himeno, A., Kondo, K., Tanigawa, H., Kasai, S. & Ono, T. Domain wall ratchet effect in a magnetic wire with asymmetric notches. J. Appl. Phys. 103, 07E703 (2008).
Franken, J., Swagten, H. & Koopmans, B. Shift registers based on magnetic domain wall ratchets with perpendicular anisotropy. Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 499–503 (2012).
Piao, H.G., Choi, H.C., Shim, J.H., Kim, D.H. & You, C.Y. Ratchet effect of the domain wall by asymmetric magnetostatic potentials. Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 192512 (2011).
Whyte, J. & Gregg, J. A diode for ferroelectric domainwall motion. Nat. Commun. 6, 7361 (2015).
Bogdanov, A. & Yablonskii, D. Thermodynamically stable vortices in magnetically ordered crystals. the mixed state of magnets. Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz 95, 182 (1989).
Mühlbauer, S. et al. Skyrmion lattice in a chiral magnet. Science 323, 915–919 (2009).
Yu, X. et al. Realspace observation of a twodimensional skyrmion crystal. Nature 465, 901–904 (2010).
Nagaosa, N. & Tokura, Y. Topological properties and dynamics of magnetic skyrmions. Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 899–911 (2013).
Parkin, S. S. P. Shiftable magnetic shift register and method of using the same (2004). US Patent 6,834,005.
Parkin, S. S. P., Hayashi, M. & Thomas, L. Magnetic domainwall racetrack memory. Science 320, 190–194 (2008).
Parkin, S. S. P. & Yang, S.H. Memory on the racetrack. Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 195–198 (2015).
Sampaio, J., Cros, V., Rohart, S., Thiaville, A. & Fert, A. Nucleation, stability and currentinduced motion of isolated magnetic skyrmions in nanostructures. Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 839 (2013).
Fert, A., Cros, V. & Sampaio, J. Skyrmions on the track. Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 152–156 (2013).
Yu, G. et al. Roomtemperature skyrmion shift device for memory application. Nano Lett. 17, 261–268 (2017).
Jonietz, F. et al. Spin transfer torques in MnSi at ultralow current densities. Science 330, 1648–1651 (2010).
Zang, J., Mostovoy, M., Han, J. H. & Nagaosa, N. Dynamics of skyrmion crystals in metallic thin films. Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 136804 (2011).
Iwasaki, J., Mochizuki, M. & Nagaosa, N. Currentinduced skyrmion dynamics in constricted geometries. Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 742–747 (2013).
Jiang, W. et al. Direct observation of the skyrmion Hall effect. Nat. Phys. 13, 162–169 (2017).
Litzius, K. et al. Skyrmion Hall effect revealed by direct timeresolved xray microscopy. Nat. Phys. 13, 170–175 (2017).
Tomasello, R. et al. A strategy for the design of skyrmion racetrack memories. Sci. Rep. 4, 6784 (2014).
Zhang, X. et al. Skyrmionskyrmion and skyrmionedge repulsions in skyrmionbased racetrack memory. Sci. Rep. 5, 7643 (2015).
Göbel, B., Mook, A., Henk, J., Mertig, I. & Tretiakov, O. A. Magnetic bimerons as skyrmion analogues in inplane magnets. Phys. Rev. B 99, 060407 (2019).
Göbel, B., Mertig, I. & Tretiakov, O. A. Beyond skyrmions: Review and perspectives of alternative magnetic quasiparticles. Phys. Rep. 895, 1–28 (2021).
Barker, J. & Tretiakov, O. A. Static and dynamical properties of antiferromagnetic skyrmions in the presence of applied current and temperature. Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 147203 (2016).
Zhang, X., Zhou, Y. & Ezawa, M. Magnetic bilayerskyrmions without skyrmion Hall effect. Nat. Commun. 7, 10293 (2016).
Zhang, X., Zhou, Y. & Ezawa, M. Antiferromagnetic skyrmion: stability, creation and manipulation. Sci. Rep. 6, 24795 (2016).
Göbel, B., Mook, A., Henk, J. & Mertig, I. Antiferromagnetic skyrmion crystals: generation, topological Hall, and topological spin Hall effect. Phys. Rev. B 96, 060406 (2017).
Legrand, W. et al. Roomtemperature stabilization of antiferromagnetic skyrmions in synthetic antiferromagnets. Nat. Mater. 19, 34–42 (2020).
Dohi, T., DuttaGupta, S., Fukami, S. & Ohno, H. Formation and currentinduced motion of synthetic antiferromagnetic skyrmion bubbles. Nat. Commun. 10, 5153 (2019).
Zhang, X. et al. Control and manipulation of a magnetic skyrmionium in nanostructures. Phys. Rev. B 94, 094420 (2016).
Göbel, B., Schäffer, A., Berakdar, J., Mertig, I. & Parkin, S. Electrical writing, deleting, reading, and moving of magnetic skyrmioniums in a racetrack device. Sci. Rep. 9, 12119 (2019).
Zhang, S., Kronast, F., van der Laan, G. & Hesjedal, T. Realspace observation of skyrmionium in a ferromagnetmagnetic topological insulator heterostructure. Nano Lett. 18, 1057–1063 (2018).
Nayak, A. K. et al. Magnetic antiskyrmions above room temperature in tetragonal Heusler materials. Nature 548, 561 (2017).
Jena, J. et al. Elliptical Bloch skyrmion chiral twins in an antiskyrmion system. Nat. Commun. 11, 1115 (2020).
Kharkov, Y., Sushkov, O. & Mostovoy, M. Bound states of skyrmions and merons near the Lifshitz point. Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 207201 (2017).
Gao, N. et al. Creation and annihilation of topological meron pairs in inplane magnetized films. Nat. Commun. 10, 5603 (2019).
Wang, X. et al. Efficient skyrmion transport mediated by a voltage controlled magnetic anisotropy gradient. Nanoscale 10, 733–740 (2018).
Ma, X., Reichhardt, C. O. & Reichhardt, C. Reversible vector ratchets for skyrmion systems. Phys. Rev. B 95, 104401 (2017).
Moon, K.W. et al. Skyrmion motion driven by oscillating magnetic field. Sci. Rep. 6, 20360 (2016).
Chen, W., Liu, L., Ji, Y. & Zheng, Y. Skyrmion ratchet effect driven by a biharmonic force. Phys. Rev. B 99, 064431 (2019).
Mochizuki, M. et al. Thermally driven ratchet motion of a skyrmion microcrystal and topological magnon hall effect. Nat. Mater. 13, 241–246 (2014).
Zhao, L., Liang, X., Xia, J., Zhao, G. & Zhou, Y. A ferromagnetic skyrmionbased diode with a voltagecontrolled potential barrier. Nanoscale 12, 9507–9516 (2020).
Finocchio, G. et al. Skyrmion based microwave detectors and harvesting. Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 262401 (2015).
Reichhardt, C., Ray, D. & Reichhardt, C. O. Magnusinduced ratchet effects for skyrmions interacting with asymmetric substrates. New J. Phys. 17, 073034 (2015).
Reichhardt, C. & Reichhardt, C. Dynamics of magnusdominated particle clusters, collisions, pinning, and ratchets. Phys. Rev. E 101, 062602 (2020).
Landau, L. D. & Lifshitz, E. On the theory of the dispersion of magnetic permeability in ferromagnetic bodies. Phys. Z. Sowjetunion 8, 101–114 (1935).
Gilbert, T. A lagrangian formulation of the gyromagnetic equation of the magnetization field. Phys. Rev. 100, 1243 (1955).
Slonczewski, J. C. Currentdriven excitation of magnetic multilayers. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 159, L1–L7 (1996).
Vansteenkiste, A. & Van de Wiele, B. Mumax: a new highperformance micromagnetic simulation tool. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 323, 2585–2591 (2011).
Vansteenkiste, A. et al. The design and verification of mumax3. AIP Adv. 4, 107133 (2014).
Thiele, A. Steadystate motion of magnetic domains. Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 230 (1973).
Göbel, B., Mook, A., Henk, J. & Mertig, I. Overcoming the speed limit in skyrmion racetrack devices by suppressing the skyrmion Hall effect. Phys. Rev. B 99, 020405 (2019).
Fernandes, I. L., Bouaziz, J., Blügel, S. & Lounis, S. Universality of defectskyrmion interaction profiles. Nat. Commun. 9, 4395 (2018).
Müller, J. & Rosch, A. Capturing of a magnetic skyrmion with a hole. Phys. Rev. B 91, 054410 (2015).
Müller, J., Rosch, A. & Garst, M. Edge instabilities and skyrmion creation in magnetic layers. New J. Phys. 18, 065006 (2016).
Hanneken, C., Kubetzka, A., Von Bergmann, K. & Wiesendanger, R. Pinning and movement of individual nanoscale magnetic skyrmions via defects. New J. Phys. 18, 055009 (2016).
CastellQueralt, J., GonzálezGómez, L., DelValle, N., Sanchez, A. & Navau, C. Accelerating, guiding, and compressing skyrmions by defect rails. Nanoscale 11, 12589–12594 (2019).
Chen, X. et al. Skyrmion dynamics in widthvarying nanotracks and implications for skyrmionic applications. Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 202406 (2017).
Iwasaki, J., Koshibae, W. & Nagaosa, N. Colossal spin transfer torque effect on skyrmion along the edge. Nano Lett. 14, 4432–4437 (2014).
Navau, C., DelValle, N. & Sanchez, A. Analytical trajectories of skyrmions in confined geometries: skyrmionic racetracks and nanooscillators. Phys. Rev. B 94, 184104 (2016).
Song, C. et al. Skyrmionbased multichannel racetrack. Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 192413 (2017).
Müller, J. Magnetic skyrmions on a twolane racetrack. New J. Phys. 19, 025002 (2017).
Leonov, A. & Mostovoy, M. Edge states and skyrmion dynamics in nanostripes of frustrated magnets. Nat. Commun. 8, 14394 (2017).
Dzyaloshinsky, I. A thermodynamic theory of “weak” ferromagnetism of antiferromagnetics. J. Phys. Chem. Sol. 4, 241–255 (1958).
Moriya, T. Anisotropic superexchange interaction and weak ferromagnetism. Phys. Rev. 120, 91 (1960).
Acknowledgements
This work is supported by SFB TRR 227 of Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG). B.G. acknowledges valuable discussions with Jamal Berakdar and Yaroslav Pavlyukh about mechanical ratchets and with Stuart S. P. Parkin about ratchets in spintronics.
Author information
Authors and Affiliations
Contributions
B.G. initiated research, did the calculations and wrote the initial draft. I.M supervised the project. All authors discussed the results and contributed to the manuscript.
Corresponding author
Ethics declarations
Competing interests
The authors declare no competing interests.
Additional information
Publisher's note
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Rights and permissions
Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
About this article
Cite this article
Göbel, B., Mertig, I. Skyrmion ratchet propagation: utilizing the skyrmion Hall effect in AC racetrack storage devices. Sci Rep 11, 3020 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598021819920
Received:
Accepted:
Published:
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598021819920
This article is cited by

Interaction of a Magnetic Skyrmionium With an Engineered Defect
Journal of Superconductivity and Novel Magnetism (2023)
Comments
By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.