Table 6 Factors associated with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) scale in patients with glaucoma.

From: The effect of anxiety and depression on progression of glaucoma

Variables Univariate model multivariate model
Odds ratio, 95% CI P value Odds ratio, 95% CI P value
Age, y 1.02, 0.99–1.05 0.118   
Sex, male/female 1.46, 0.72–2.96 0.289   
Hypertension, n (%) 1.10, 0.47–2.58 0.822   
Diabetics, n (%) 1.34, 0.27–6.53 0.721   
CCT, µm 0.99, 0.98–1.00 0.110   
Axial length, mm 1.02, 0.84–1.23 0.847   
PPA/Disc area, per 1 µm larger (%) 0.71, 0.32–1.57 0.379   
Tilt ratio 0.42, 0.07–2.47 0.337   
Torsion ratio 1.01, 0.98–1.05 0.502   
VF MD, dB 0.91, 0.86–0.96  < 0.001 0.91, 0.86–0.97 0.003
VF PSD, dB 1.09, 1.00–1.19 0.051   
VF MD progression rate, dB/year 1.32, 0.54–3.22 0.536   
RNFL thickness loss rate, µm/year 1.30, 0.97–1.73 0.079   
Follow-up duration (month) 0.99, 0.98–1.01 0.849   
Mean IOP 1.00, 0.89–1.12 0.993   
Peak IOP 1.00, 0.92–1.09 0.960   
IOP fluctuation 1.02, 0.93–1.13 0.674   
Mean blood pressure 0.94, 0.92–1.01 0.103   
Disc hemorrhage 0.47, 0.06–3.71 0.471   
Heart rate variability 1.02, 1.01–1.04 0.001 1.02, 1.01–1.04 0.006
  1. CI, confidence interval; CCT, central corneal thickness; PPA, peripapillary atrophy; VF, visual field; MD, mean deviation; PSD, pattern standard deviation; RNFL, retinal nerve fiber layer; IOP, intraocular pressure.
  2. Variables with p < 0.05 were included in the multivariate analysis.
  3. Statistically significant values appear in boldface.
  4. Continuous data are mean ± mean standard deviation unless otherwise indicated.