Table 5 Comparison of the demographics and test results between two groups divided according to the Beck depression inventory-II (BDI-II) scale.

From: The effect of anxiety and depression on progression of glaucoma

Variables Low depression group,
(LD-G), 211 eyes
High depression group,
(HD-G), 40 eyes
P value
Age, y 52.67 ± 12.02 56.20 ± 17.34 0.224*
Sex, male/female 93/118 14/26 0.287
Hypertension, n (%) 39(18.5%) 8(20.0%) 0.822
Diabetics, n (%) 8(3.8%) 2(5.0%) 0.720
CCT, µm 539.66 \(\pm 48.31\) 523.33 \(\pm 30.10\) 0.109*
Axial length, mm 25.30 \(\pm 1.86\) 25.36 \(\pm 1.96\) 0.847*
PPA/Disc area, per 1 µm larger (%) 45.41 \(\pm 53.98\) 37.86 \(\pm 36.40\) 0.398*
Tilt ratio 1.21 \(\pm 0.22\) 1.18 \(\pm 0.16\) 0.242*
Torsion ratio 88.93 \(\pm 14.51\) 91.04 \(\pm 10.35\) 0.699*
VF MD, dB  − 3.81 \(\pm 4.50\)  − 7.30 \(\pm 7.68\)  < 0.001*
VF PSD, dB 4.31 \(\pm 3.52\) 5.54 \(\pm 3.94\) 0.053*
VF MD progression rate, dB/year  − 0.56 \(\pm 0.59\)  − 0.67 \(\pm 0.62\) 0.539*
RNFL thickness loss rate, µm/year  − 0.76 \(\pm 1.42\)  − 1.45 \(\pm 2.33\) 0.074*
Follow-up duration (month) 63.02 \(\pm\) 31.16 61.57 \(\pm\) 37.36 0.851*
Mean IOP 13.93 \(\pm\) 2.96 13.93 \(\pm\) 3.25 0.993*
Peak IOP 17.66 \(\pm 4.27\) 17.70 \(\pm 3.76\) 0.960*
IOP fluctuation 5.63 \(\pm 3.51\) 5.88 \(\pm 2.54\) 0.675*
Mean blood pressure 94.89 \(\pm 12.26\) 90.42 \(\pm 7.45\) 0.102*
Disc hemorrhage 11(5.2%) 2(2.5%) 0.461
Heart rate variability 34.08 ± 16.28 47.77 ± 36.27 0.001*
  1. CCT, central corneal thickness; PPA, peripapillary atrophy; VF, visual field; MD, mean deviation; PSD, pattern standard deviation; RNFL, retinal nerve fiber layer; IOP, intraocular pressure.
  2. Statistically significant values appear in boldface.
  3. *The comparison was performed using independent samples t-test.
  4. The comparison was performed using a chi-squared test.
  5. Continuous data are mean ± mean standard deviation unless otherwise indicated.