Figure 3 | Scientific Reports

Figure 3

From: Thiamethoxam exposure deregulates short ORF gene expression in the honey bee and compromises immune response to bacteria

Figure 3

Thiamethoxam exposure makes bees vulnerable to infection by Bacillus badius and Ochrobactrum anthropi. Viability of groups of 8–12 bees 24 h (grey bars) and 48 h (black bars) after injection with B. badius (A) or O. anthropi (B) (2–8 × 106 and diluted 1:10) alone or together with thiamethoxam (at a range of doses, µM) shown as means and standard errors of three replicates. Arrows indicate injection of a 1 µM thiamethoxam solution with (A right and B) or without bacteria (A left). Statistical significance is indicated by **(p < 0.01) and ***(p < 0.001).

Back to article page