Table 1 The normalized movement duration, speed, impulse, stiffness (cocontraction in the real task, grasp force in the virtual task), and the tangential force were all fitted separately for each participant using an exponential function, whose parameters (mean and SEM) are summarized here.

From: Analogous adaptations in speed, impulse and endpoint stiffness when learning a real and virtual insertion task with haptic feedback

Normalized variable Offset parameter c Amplitude parameter A Rate constant λ
Real Virtual Real Virtual Real Virtual
Duration − 2.0 ± 0.7 − 17 ± 10 4.6 ± 0.6 21 ± 10 − 0.5 ± 0.2 − 0.8 ± 0.3
Speed − 61 ± 20 − 80 ± 30 59 ± 20 79 ± 30 0.1 ± 0.05 0.3 ± 0.2
Impulse − 120 ± 45 − 38 ± 25 130 ± 45 41 ± 25 − 0.06 ± 0.03 − 0.2 ± 0.1
Stiffness − 63 ± 24 − 81 ± 42 66 ± 23 83 ± 42 − 0.8 ± 0.5 − 0.3 ± 0.1
Force − 110 ± 31 32 ± 15 110 ± 31 − 32 ± 15 − 0.05 ± 0.04 0.15 ± 0.08