(A) Locations of the modern coppice-with-standard (CWS) forest in Weigenheim (WEIG) and Welbhausen (WELB) (green dots), the detected historical CWS standards in Bavaria (red triangles) and north-eastern France (blue triangles), as well as the prehistoric (orange squares) and modern (light green squares) reference groups. For details see supplementary Table S1. The spatial distribution of the historical datasets is indicated by colour shadings in Bavaria (purple) and France (blue). (B) Cross-section of an oak standard from Welbhausen (WELB), felled in winter 2017/2018. Visible growth releases are indicated (red arrows) (C) CWS forest in Weigenheim (WEIG) during understorey harvest in January 2018. The map was created using QGIS, version 3.4.11-Madeira (https://qgis.org/de/site/).