Table 1 Baseline characteristics of studied patients.

From: Efficacy of single-dose cholecalciferol in the blood pressure of patients with type 2 diabetes, hypertension and hypovitaminoses D

Baseline characteristics Vitamin D
Group
Placebo
Group
P
N 22 21
Male/female, No 6/16 9/12
Age, y 66 ± 8 65 ± 11 0.8*
White ethnicity, No. (%) 21 (96) 19 (91) 0.5
Current smoking, No. (%) 2 (9) 0 (0) 0.3c
Diabetes duration, y 13 (6–15) 12 (5–20) 0.7*
Hypertension duration, y 17 (10–26) 20 (9–29) 0.5*
Level of Education, y 10 (8–12) 9 (8–11) 0.6*
Current alcohol intake, No. (%) 7 (32) 8 (38) 0.8
Previous Cardiovascular Event No. (%) 1 (5) 2 (10) 0.5
Diabetic retinopathy, No. (%)* 6 (29) 4 (18) 0.3
Sunscreen use No. (%) 7 (32) 4 (19) 0.3
Winter/summer season No. (%) 19(85)/ 3(14) 18(86) / 3 (14) 0.7
Blood pressure parameters
Office systolic BP, mm Hg 149 ± 18 147 ± 17 0.7*
Office diastolic BP, mm Hg 83 ± 7 84 ± 14 0.7*
24-h systolic ABPM, mm Hg 135 ± 12 131 ± 12 0.3*
24-h diastolic ABPM, mm Hg 75 ± 11 74 ± 7 0.6*
Daytime systolic ABPM, mm Hg 136 ± 13 135 ± 12 0.8*
Daytime diastolic ABPM, mm Hg 79 ± 12 76 ± 7 0.5*
Nighttime systolic ABPM, mm Hg 128 ± 11 124 ± 12 0.3*
Nighttime diastolic ABPM, mm Hg 69 ± 9 68 ± 8 0.8*
Hypertension medication
ACE inhibitors n (%) 11 (52) 10 (48) 0.6
Beta blockers n (%) 6 (27) 9 (43) 0.2
ARBs, n (%) 9 (41) 8 (38) 0.6
Diuretics, n (%) 16 (73) 17 (81) 0.4
Calcium Channel Blockers, n (%) 4 (18) 8 (38) 0.1
Diabetes medication
Sulfonylureas, n (%) 22 (100) 21 (100) 1.00
Biguanides, n (%) 10 (46) 8 (38) 0.4
Insulin, n (%) 4 (18) 5 (24) 0.5
Other, n (%) 1 (5) 0 (0) 0.5
Laboratory parameters
25(OH)D, ng/ml 14 ± 5 14.5 ± 4.3 0.6*
UAE 24-h No. (%) 13 (4–37) 15 (4–35) 0.7
Urinary sodium, mEq/24 h 175 ± 71 201 ± 42 0.2*
Urinary calcium, mEq/24 h 78 (44–118) 70 (42–122) 0. 4
Glycated hemoglobin, % 8 ± 1 8 ± 1 0.5*
Fasting glucose, mg/dL 150 ± 51 151 ± 57 1.0*
Total cholesterol, mg/dL 179 ± 40 183 ± 43 0.8*
HDL cholesterol, mg/dL 48 ± 9 54 ± 16 0.1*
Non-HDL Cholesterol mg/dL 131 ± 42 129 ± 42 0.9*
Triglycerides, mg/dL 147 (49–313) 109 (68–296) 0.4
LDL cholesterol, mg/dL 99 ± 39 100 ± 40 0.9*
Calcium mg/dL 9 (9–10) 10 (9–10) 0.5
Creatinine mg/dL 0.9 ± 0.2 0.8 ± 0.3 0.9*
Parathyroid hormone pg/mL 53 (44–77) 60 (47–78) 0.5
Body parameters
Body mass index, kg/m2 31 ± 5 30 ± 4 0.8*
Waist circumference, male, cm 105 ± 10 107 ± 6 0.5*
Waist circumference, female, cm 107 ± 16 100 ± 5 0.4*
Fat mass, % (bioimpedance) 38 ± 9 39 ± 7 0.7*
  1. y, years; ABPM, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring; ACE, angiotensinconverting enzyme; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; BP, blood pressure; UAE, urinary albumin excretion. Previous cardiovascular event = myocardial infarction and stroke. Sunscreen use = daily use of sunscreen on face and arms.
  2. Data are expressed as number (%); mean (SD) and median (P25–P75).
  3. *t test; Pearson’s chi-square; Mann–Whitney U.