Table 4 Multivariable ordered-logit model of determinants of total healthcare utilization costs.

From: Overuse of reliever inhalers and associated healthcare utilization of asthma patients

Variable OR 95% CI P value
Refilled ≥ 3 prescriptions of canisters of reliever inhalersa annually (vs. others) 0.82 0.62–1.09 0.175
Max annual average PDC of controllers (excluding MART)b 3.30 2.11–5.16  < 0.001
Annual average PDC of MART 2.18 1.44–3.28  < 0.001
Annual average consumption of nebulized SABAs and SAMAs 1.08 1.02–1.14 0.007
Age (+ 1 year) 0.96 0.94–0.98  < 0.001
Gender (male vs. female) 0.48 0.38–0.62  < 0.001
Ownership of voluntary supplementary health insurance 1.93 1.46–2.56  < 0.001
Charlson comorbidity index 1.61 1.37–1.91  < 0.001
Comorbidities
Hypertension 1.91 1.37–2.68  < 0.001
IHD 4.80 2.24–10.32  < 0.001
Obesity 1.34 1.04–1.73 0.026
n 977   
Pseudo R2 0.087   
  1. PDC, proportion of days covered; MART, maintenance and reliever therapy; IHD, ischemic heart disease; SABA, short acting beta2 agonist; SAMA, short-acting muscarinic antagonists.
  2. aReliever inhalers include inhaled SABAs and SAMAs, and exclude nebulized SABAs and SAMAs.
  3. bControllers included inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) inhalers, leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRA), ICS + long-acting β2 -agonist (LABA) combinations inhalers, and Theophylline, and exclude controller therapy administered by nebulizers.