Figure 2 | Scientific Reports

Figure 2

From: Genetical control of 2D pattern and depth of the primordial furrow that prefigures 3D shape of the rhinoceros beetle horn

Figure 2

RNAi analysis show that the Notch and CyclinE genes contribute to control of furrow depth and 2D furrow pattern, respectively. (a) Comparison of the depth and surface 2D pattern (concentric-like pattern) of the horn primordia between control and six different RNAi treatments. The 2D furrow patterns inside of the primordial top region were compared. N RNAi decreases the depth of the furrow and CycE RNAi disturbed the concentric-like 2D furrow pattern. (b) Comparison of the frontal section of the head just before pupation in control and N RNAi and CycE RNAi. The red arrowheads show the specific deeper furrows detected in N RNAi. (c) Quantitative data of the macro structure size and the density and the depth of the furrow (asterisk means P < 0.05) (n = 7, 5, 6 for negative control, N RNAi, CycE RNAi, respectively; however the furrows were too shallow to measure in one N RNAi so that n = 4 for furrow depth and density). (d) Pupal horn shape phenotypes between control and N RNAi. Two different individuals were shown in both of control and N RNAi. Marked differences of center groove depth were highlighted by yellow dashed line. (e) Comparison of the pupal horn shape between control and CycE RNAi. Marked differences of center groove depth were highlighted by red arrows. Scale bar indicates 1 mm for (b), 5 mm for (d) and (e).

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