Total medical costs under different mitigation scenarios with limited and unlimited hospital bed capacity. “Constrained without sharing” refers to limited bed capacity and no sharing allowed. “Constrained with sharing” refers to limited bed capacity with sharing of beds among neighboring HRRs allowed. The constrained cases assume an average of 14 days of hospital stay and 70% of dedicated bed capacity to COVID-19 patients. X-labels are similar to those in Fig. 3.