Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains of Beijing lineage have caused great concern because of their rapid emergence of drug resistance and worldwide spread. DNA mutation rates that reflect evolutional adaptation to host responses and the appearance of drug resistance have not been elucidated in human-infected Beijing strains. We tracked and obtained an original Mtb isolate of Beijing lineage from the 1999 tuberculosis outbreak in Japan, as well as five other isolates that spread in humans, and two isolates from the patient caused recurrence. Three isolates were from patients who developed TB within one year after infection (rapid-progressor, RP), and the other three isolates were from those who developed TB more than one year after infection (slow-progressor, SP). We sequenced genomes of these isolates and analyzed the propensity and rate of genomic mutations. Generation time versus mutation rate curves were significantly higher for RP. The ratio of oxidative versus non-oxidation damages induced mutations was higher in SP than RP, suggesting that persistent Mtb are exposed to oxidative stress in the latent state. Our data thus demonstrates that higher mutation rates of Mtb Beijing strains during human infection is likely to account for the higher adaptability and an emergence ratio of drug resistance.
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the top 10 causes of death and the leading cause from a single infectious agent above HIV/AIDS1. TB generally has two clinical states comprised of frequent long-term latency and active disease. Approximately one quarter of the world’s human population is asymptomatically infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), a state called latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI)1. LTBI is a large source of the disease and generally, 5–10% of LTBI population develops active TB during lifetime2.
Mtb spread out of Africa over 70,000 years ago, following the early human exodus from Africa3. The current global Mtb spread can be classified into seven lineages4. Lineage 4 and 2 which spread mainly to Europe and Eurasia respectively, are known to be highly pathogenic4,5. In particular, Mtb Beijing lineage belonging to lineage 2 has received much attention due to its strong tendency to become highly pathogenic, drug resistant, and highly transmittable5,6,7,8,9,10. Recent studies reported that many genes, including drug target genes tend to be mutated in Beijing strains11, and are associated with multi-drug resistance (MDR) outbreaks12,13,14.
It is known that the genomic mutation rate of Mtb is 10–100 folds lower compared to other pathogens3,15. Since the insertion of foreign genes into the Mtb genome is rare, it is thought that evolutional acquirements of pathogenicity and drug resistance mainly depend on mutations in the genome. Genomic mutations result from errors in DNA synthesis, and are therefore likely to accumulate during Mtb division in active TB. On the other hand, in non-dividing Mtb during latent state, genomic DNA can be damaged by the host responses and be mutated by erroneously repairing.
It is hard to experimentally verify rates of Mtb replication and its genomic DNA mutation during latency. However, Ford et al. reported a curve, describing mutation rates as a function of replication, which calculates mutation rates by measuring the number of chromosomal mutations during a defined period of infection16. Using Mtb infection model in rhesus macaque, they showed that the generation-time versus mutation rate curves of Mtb were similar regardless of the length of the latent period16. On the other hand, Colangeli et al17 reported higher mutation rates of Mtb isolates that developed TB within two years compared to Mtb isolates that progressed to disease more than two years post-infection. In both cases, Mtb strains of lineage 4 were used. However, the genomic mutation rates of Mtb strains of Beijing lineage during human infection has not been elucidated so far.
We obtained one original strain that caused the Mtb outbreak in Japan and five other isolates transmitted by patients and two isolates from the patient before and after causing recurrence (Fig. 1). Three out of the five transmitted isolates were derived from patients (rapid-progressor, RP) who developed disease within one year after infection, and the other three isolates were obtained from patients (slow-progressor, SP) who developed TB more than one year after infection.
In this study, we performed whole genome sequencing of these eight isolates in order to know the propensity and rate of genomic mutations of Mtb Beijing lineage during human infection.
Epidemiological relationships among eight Mtb Beijing isolates
We selected six Mtb Beijing isolates from the strain bank in Kobe Institute of Health. These isolates cover the events of latency and active transmission through sequential hosts (Fig. 1). Five of them were obtained from patients who were involved in the TB outbreak at a junior high school in 1999. Isolate A was from the initial index-case patient of the outbreak, Isolate B and Isolate C were obtained from patients whose TB onset was 2 months after the initial index case. Isolate D was obtained from a patient who received LTBI treatment of INH but developed active INH-resistant TB during therapy. Isolate E was selected as the latency transmission case of the outbreak. The patient (Subject E) was a classmate with the initial index-case patient (Subject A), likely exposed in the 1999 event, and developed active TB 7 years 6 months later after the index case. Subject E caused another outbreak in 2006 at a hair salon where the patient worked. The patient (Subject F) was a customer at the hair salon, likely exposed in the 2006 event, and developed active TB 2 years 9 months later in 2009. All isolates from the six patients demonstrated an identical variable numbers of tandem repeats (VNTR) genotype.
We selected the other two Mtb Beijing isolates from the strain bank in Osaka Institute of Public Health. This patient (Subject G) was diagnosed as pulmonary TB with rifampicin resistant Mtb isolate (Isolate G) for the first time in 1999. After six months treatment and getting cured, he had a relapse in 2001 with Mtb isolate (Isolate H) resistant to INH, rifampicin, streptomycin and ethambutol. Even though these isolates showed different drug sensitivity patterns, they had identical VNTR genotype and belonged to the Beijing lineage.
Mutation rates were compared between the two groups; early-onset patients who developed TB within one year (rapid-progressor, RP), such as, pairs A-B, A-C and A-D, and those who developed or relapsed after a latent period of more than one year (slow-progressor, SP), such as, pairs A-E, E-F and G-H.
Determination of genomic mutations
First, low quality reads were removed with the Usearch parameter maxee 0.5 recommended for quality control of FASTQ files. Subsequently, the reads sequences were mapped to the Mtb H37Rv genome sequence as a reference with BWA, because it is refined genome data the closest of the published genomes to the strains we analyzed. GATK was used for mutation calling and about 1600 mutations were found in each strain (Filter 1 in Table 1). Second, consensus genome sequence of Isolate A, which was derived from the initial index case, was constructed based on only high quality SNPs filtered with the VCF parameters described in “Methods” section, because of the following processes. The reads sequence in each strain was re-mapped to the consensus genome sequence and Indels and SNPs were re-called (Filter 2). Next, indels re-called in Isolate A were removed in each strain, because they were regarded as the same as the Indels originally called when using H37Rv as the reference (Filter 3). Higher quality mutations were extracted based on the VCF parameter filtering (Filter 4). Finally, mutations found in repeat sequence of the PE-PGRS family were filtered (Filter 5). As a result, 118 mutations in Isolate B-F were detected (Supplementary Table S1). There were total of six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with amino acid substitutions (Supplementary Table S2).
Isolate B and C possessed more SNPs in upstream regions of genes and synonymous mutations than the other isolates (Table 2). The number of the missense variants that can change amino acids were similar in each strain despite of the duration of incubation period (Table 2).
SNPs and indels in drug resistance genes were only found in Isolate D, which had a large-deletion including katG (Supplementary Fig. S1). katG encodes catalase peroxidase, an enzyme that converts isoniazid (INH) to its biologically active form18. INH resistance commonly occurs due to mutations in the katG gene19. In this case, this large deletion in the katG gene region accounts for INH resistance in Isolate D. Large deletions with more than 1 kb were explored in all strains. As a result, we detected 18 large deletions. Of these, 17 large deletion sites were common in Isolate A to Isolate F. Thus, these large deletions were regarded as the regions that existed in the ancestral strain (Isolate A).
Analysis of mutation positions
We analyzed whether there is a tendency in the location of the mutation on the genome in five strains of the outbreak case (Supplementary Fig. S2). When comparing the number of mutations in every 200,000 bp (or 100,000 bp), whether the number of mutations was the same as the average number of mutations throughout the genome was tested by Mann–Whitney U-test. Since the p value did not fall below 0.05 (p > 0.2), and is not different from the average of the whole genome, the sites of mutation were considered to be unbiased. There was also no tendency in the mutation location on the genome between RP and SP groups. Next, we assessed mutations related to the length of the latent period. In the SP group, the same mutant genes found in isolates E and F were Rv0800 and Rv1165. Rv0800 which is involved in intermediary metabolism and respiration had an amino acid substitution. However, it is likely that the mutant gene was transmitted from subject E to F, because the same mutations in Rv0800 were observed in Isolate E and F. We also could not find intergenic regions significantly associated with latent periods, consistent with previous reports16,17,20.
A phylogenetic analysis of all SNPs from the six Mtb Beijing strains from the outbreak case was performed. The analysis supported the epidemiological connections identified between isolate A-B, A-C, A-D, A-E, and E-F. This analysis further confirmed that the ancestry of isolate B, C and D were closer than that of isolates E and F (Fig. 2a). Indeed, SNP distances of isolate C-E, B-E, and B-F were longest and which of isolates A-B and E-F were shortest (Fig. 2b). These results support our hypothesis that the trend of the two groups (RP and SP group) is different genetically.
Mutation rates among Mtb isolates in the outbreak case
In vitro, generation time of Mtb is approximately 20 h under nutrient-rich conditions21. In order to compare the mutation rate of bacteria from each clinical condition, Ford et al. derived a lower limit for the bacterial mutation rate in vivo, which they defined as the predicted mutation rate per generation if the in vivo generation time was equivalent to the in vitro generation time of 20 h, calledμ20. They calculated the mutation rate (μ) as described in “Methods” section.
We estimated the mutation rate (mutation/bp/generation) across a broad range of generation times (Fig. 3a), and also derived a mutation rate (μ20) at an assumed 20 h generation time (Table 3). We determined the probability of observing μ when g is fixed at any given time to build the probability distribution function around each estimate and to define 95% confidence intervals (Fig. 3b).
In tested strains of the outbreak case, the estimated mutation rate (20 h) of RP group showed 3.5–10.3 × 10–9 mutations/bp/generation, while the SP group showed lower mutation rates of 1.7–3.8 × 10–10 mutations/bp/generation. If a common generation time is assumed, the estimated mean mutation rates per generation of RP group was approximately tenfold higher than those from SP group (Fig. 3a). The areas of 95% confidence intervals from the two groups does not overlap, suggesting that the mutation rate of RP group tends to be higher (Fig. 3b).
Secondly, we compared the mean mutation rate (20 h) between Mtb Beijing strains of the Japan outbreak case and Mtb lineage 4 strains of the New Zealand outbreak case (Fig. 4). The mean mutation rate per generation of Mtb isolates from SP group was calculated to be 2.8 × 10–10. This was close to the general mutation rate, 2.1 × 10–10, which was calculated from Mtb Erdman strains infected rhesus macaques15. In contrast, the mutation rate of Mtb isolates from RP group was calculated to be 6.9 × 10–9, showing ten times higher than the general mutation rate. Both mutation rates of these Mtb isolates from RP group and SP group were higher than those of Mtb lineage 4 strains isolated from the TB outbreak in New Zealand16.
In transmission studies5,16,22,23,24, there is an agreement among estimates of 0.3–0.5 SNP changes per year per genome, which are consistent with the estimated 0.2 SNPs per genome per year based on DNA from ancient isolates25. The same mutation rate of 0.3–0.5 mutations per year was reported in strains from a primate model with active, latent or reactivation tuberculosis16. On the other hand, the rates of genetic change in our study were 6–18 mutations per year in RP group and 0.6–1 mutations per year in SP group (Table 3). These high rates of genetic change suggest that Mtb Beijing strains can accumulate an unexpected level of SNP variation in a general situation.
Higher genome mutation rate of Beijing lineage Mtb
Our analysis of the Beijing lineage Mtb isolates that caused the outbreak showed an unexpected higher mutation rate. We next assessed whether this higher mutation rate is strain-specific or not.
The data showed that the mutation rate per generation of isolates from SP group in the recurrence case (Isolate H) was calculated to be 1.9 × 10–9 and rates of genetic change was 3 mutations per year (Table 3), showing higher mutation rate to that of SP group from the outbreak case. Finally, we compared the mutation rates of all analyzed Mtb Beijing strains in this study, 3 of which were RP and the other 3 were SP. Student’s t-test calculation produced a p value of 0.029 (95%CI: 9.55 × 10–10–1.10 × 10–8), which indicates that the mutation rates are significantly different between tested RP and SP groups.
The DNA mutations can be classified as oxidative and non-oxidative damage. Oxidative mutation type was determined by the products of either cytosine deamination (GC to AT changes), or the formation of 8-oxoguanine (GC to TA changes). We counted polymorphism patterns of DNA substitution by the same method defined before15,16 and compared the percentage of same mutation patterns in the total mutations of each isolate. Mtb isolates from RP group (Isolate B, C and D) possessed more non-oxidative mutation type as AT > GC polymorphism. On the other hand, SP group in the outbreak case (Isolate E and F) and the recurrence case (Isolate H) had more oxidative mutation type seen as GC > TA and GC > AT polymorphisms (Supplementary Table S3 and Fig. 5). We compared the percentage of oxidative mutation type GC > TA between RP and SP including the recurrence case. Student’s t-test calculation produced a p value of 0.026 (95%CI: 28.8, − 3.13), suggesting that Mtb is exposed to oxidative stress in long term latent infection.
Analysis of common mutated genes shared by the three studies
We tried to identify mutations related to the length of the latent period shared by three studies (Supplementary Fig. S3). From the New Zealand study17, mutation on only one gene Rv2839c was common with our study. However, the mutation did not contribute to the length of the latent period. The Macaques study16 on the other hand had one gene, Rv2092c, mutation from an active group similar to our RP group. However, we could not find the genes and inter-genic regions significantly associated with latent periods among the Mtb strains of lineage 2 and lineage 4.
Here we demonstrate substantially higher genomic mutation rates of human-infected Mtb Beijing strains during both active and latent TB states. We first found that the mutation rates were approximately tenfold higher in early-onset patients than those who developed or relapsed after a long-term latent period of the Beijing strains (Fig. 3). This result was consistent with the previous report that analyzed the human-infected Mtb lineage 4 strain17 but inconsistent with the study using the rhesus macaque infection model16. This discrepancy can be explained by differences in host responses between human and rhesus macaque.
Further, in humans, we found that the mutation rates of Beijing isolates from both active and latent disease phases were higher than each of the mutation rates of lineage 4 strains previously reported16. Although both linage 4 and Beijing lineage are highly pathogenic among Mtb lineages, our data suggests that the Beijing lineage has potential to rapidly acquire resistance in vivo than lineage 4. Generally, it is thought that the mutation rate of Mtb is driven by time dependent rather than replication-dependent manner26. Mutations in DNA replication and repair genes are enriched in some Mtb strains of lineage 227, but no single point mutation that accelerates the basic mutation rate of Mtb in isogenic strains has been reported. Mtb Beijing strains of lineage 2 grow avoiding oxidative damage from host immunity28, and it may cause more cell division in vivo than Mtb strains of lineage 4. Therefore, higher mutation rates in the measured Beijing strains are more likely due to replication errors in active disease state. In contrast, oxidative mutations are frequent in latent state. This suggests the presence of an unknown error prone repairing system in Mtb Beijing strains.
Second, we found that the percentage of oxidative damage-related mutations, such as the formation of 8-oxoguanine (GC > TA) and cytosine deamination (GC > AT), were high in SP group (Fig. 5). Similar results were obtained in the study of rhesus macaque infection model16. In addition, this is similar to the pattern of polymorphisms that emerged during the evolution of the extensively drug-resistant Mtb strains from South Africa29. Thus, the mutation capacity of Mtb during latent infection as well as the spectrum of those drug resistant mutations suggests that the dominant source of mutation during latency is oxidative DNA damage rather than replicative error16,30.
Our WGS data shows evidence that persistent Mtb was under oxidative stress during latency. This is consistent with the model that Mtb faces to an oxidative environment in the macrophage phagolysosome18,31. It is known that the dominant source of mutation during latency is oxidative DNA damage rather than replicative error30. This is caused by immune responses during latent infection32,33, and by entering into metabolically quiescent state in which DNA replication-dependent error is diminished34,35. This suggests that genomic mutation-dependent drug resistance may occur during the latent state. Actually, one isolate acquired isoniazid resistance by the deletion of katG during INH-monotherapy (Supplementary Fig. S1).
Resistance to INH is a complex process and has been associated with multiple genes36,37,38. Mutations in codon 315 of katG and position-15 in inhA promoter region are the most common mutations associated with INH resistance38,39. Since katG is essential to transform INH into its bioactive form, katG deletion causes high resistance to INH40. However, katG is also important factor for Mtb survival depending on its catalase-peroxidase activities18. Recent TnSeq data actually indicated that tested all three clinical strains (East Asian lineage, Euro American lineage, Indo-Oceanic lineage) showed requirement of katG41. This may be the reason why katG deletions in INH-resistant strains are less than those with common mutations.
By contrast, katG is not essential in Mtb H37Rv and higher proportions of katG deletion have been reported on occasion42. The reason why rare katG deletion occurred in Isolate D is likely due to non-essentiality of katG in the strain43,44,45. It was reported that loss of katG activity was compensated with alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, AhpC37. Interestingly, it was shown that members of the lineage 2 strain produce a phenolic glycolipid that inhibits the innate immune response46, which reduces oxidative burst generated by the host immunity. Such antioxidant property of the strain afforded katG-null mutant that exhibits high resistance to INH, especially under strong pressure from INH. Considering these results, our data indicates that part of the increased risk of INH resistance after isoniazid preventive therapy may have resulted from the selection of mono resistant mutants that arise during latency. Especially in Beijing strains of Mtb, which has a higher genome mutation rate, isoniazid preventive therapy might cause an increase in drug resistant strains.
Emergence of the Mtb drug resistance is mostly dependent on mutations in the genome. And in vitro mutation rate is very close to the mutation rate in isolates from a human transmission chain26. It has been reported that Mtb lineage 2 has higher mutation and drug resistance rates than Mtb lineage 4 in vitro26. Our results show that tested Mtb Beijing strains have high genomic mutation rates in vivo. The high genomic mutation rate is thus considered to be a characteristic of the Mtb Beijing strains.
Despite the valuable information obtained, we acknowledge the use of a small number of tested isolates as the first limitation to our study. However, it is comparable to the sample size used in the rhesus macaque study16 (based on four animals for active disease, three for latent and two for reactivation) and in the Rangipo strain outbreak in New Zealand (based on four pair-wise comparison)17. Nonetheless, our conclusion will need to be validated in larger studies, and analysis of different patient groups, including other Beijing strains from epidemic countries. Second, our study design slightly differed from that of the New Zealand cases17 where patients who developed TB 2 years after the first patient had TB, were categorized as the early-onset group. This might be the reason why higher rate of oxidative damage-related mutations during TB latency was not observed in the New Zealand cases17.
In summary, we reported higher mutation rate of Mtb Beijing strains during human infection. This higher mutation rate accounts for the higher adaptation ability and drug resistance rates of Mtb Beijing lineage. Currently, Mtb Beijing strains are the cause of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis worldwide, including Japan and are expanding. We suggest these biological factors should be considered in the efforts to limit the emergence of new resistance to both existing antibiotics and treatment regimens.
DNA extraction, library preparation and whole genome sequencing
Experiments were performed in class II safety cabinets in biosafety level 3 laboratories in Niigata University, Kobe Institute of Health, and Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health, to prevent accidents and contamination according to the institute’s guidelines. Genomic DNA of each Isolate A-F was prepared from colonies grown on Ogawa medium according to a previous report47. Other two Mtb Beijing isolates were inoculated on Ogawa egg medium and incubated at 35 °C until growth was observed. Genomic DNA of these two isolates were purified as a previous report48.
The library preparation and whole genome sequencing were performed at Dragon Genomics Center (Takara Bio, Shiga, Japan) or Beckman Coulter Genomics (MA, USA) where 75 bp paired-end reads were obtained by Illumina Genome AnalyzerIIx (Illumina, CA, USA).
The paired-end genome sequencing for the above eight strains was applied, and produced 16 FASTQ files. In order to retrieve high quality reads, usearch was performed with the parameter maxee 0.5 and 15–25% of reads were filtered. Each FASTQ file was mapped against Mtb H37Rv genome sequence, which was used as the reference genome, using BWA49. The resulting SAM files were transferred into the BAM format using samtools. Subsequently, SNPs and Indels were called with GATK50,51, generating the VCF files (Filter 1).
Consensus sequence construction and mutation re-call
The low quality Indel and SNPs were filtered with the VCF parameters, quality by depth (QD) > 2, fisher strand (FS) > 60, root mean square of mapping quality (MQ) > 40, mapping quality rank sum test (MQ Rank Sum) equals to 0, allele count in genotypes (AC) equals to 2 and read position rank sum test (Read Pos Rank Sum) > − 8. In order to reconstruct the genome sequence for the first patient, Isolate A, the SNPs of the Isolate A were reflected to the Mtb H37Rv genome to generate the consensus genome sequence for the Isolate A using bcftools52. The indels were not applied in this process to avoid the complexity of the following process. The genome sequence for the five strains were re-mapped to the reconstructed reference genome sequence of Isolate A with the same method described above (Filter 2). Finally, indels re-called in Isolate A (similar to the Indels originally called using H37Rv as the reference) were removed in each strain (Filter 3). In order to further refine the re-called Indel and SNPs, the low quality Indel and SNPs were filtered with the same VCF parameters described above (Filter 4). Mutations found in the PE-PGRS family region were removed because they were found in the repeat sequence (Filter 5).
Detection of large-deletion
Genomic regions with more than 1 kb that any reads were not mapped were found using our ad-hoc Ruby script. All the detected large-deletions were manually checked by the IGV genome viewer53 and the all detected deletions were confirmed to be deletions.
Estimation of mutation rate
The incubation period for each strain was calculated based on the latency period from the onset of the first patient. As in Ford et al16, the mutation rate (μ) was calculated by the following equation.
m is defined by the number of mutations observed, N is the genome size based on the mapping coverage without PE-PGRS family region, t is the incubation period of each strain and g is the generation time. This generation time was set to the same 20 h as used in ref16. Mean reference genome coverage was 90.7% (range 89.1–91.4%).
The phylogenetic analysis was performed using CLC Genomics Workbench ver 20.0.2 (QIAGEN Aarthus A/S). All figures were derived from the resulting table generated by the software. After uploading the data files to the CLC server the sequence reads were trimmed to remove short and low quality reads (length > 20 bases, quality > 0.05) and then they were mapped to the Mtb H37Rv genome (NCBI accession #N000962)54. The evolutionary history was inferred using Maximum Likelihood algorism without bootstrap confidence values (1000 replications). The evolutionary distances were computed using the Jukes Cantor model and are represented as the number of base distances per site.
We compared the number of mutations by Mann–Whitney U-test to analyze the bias of mutation positions. We compared the mutation rates of two groups by Student’s t-test using the R project for statistical computing. Differences were considered significant when the p value was ≤ 0.05.
Sequencing reads have been submitted to the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) under the study accession DRA010887. Accession numbers of 8 Mtb Beijing strains are listed in Supplementary Table S4.
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We are grateful to Dr. Takahiro Hakamata, Ms. Yuko Kobayashi, Haruka Kobayashi, Sara Matsumoto, and Satoko Matsumoto for their assistance and heartfelt encouragement. We are grateful for the donation of Mtb strains from Dr. Makoto Toyoda at Kochi City Health Center. This research was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science to Sohkichi Matsumoto (20H03483) and by AMED to Akihito Nishiyama (19fk0108090) and Sohkichi Matsumoto (19fk0108089). This is also supported by the United States–Japan Cooperative Medical Science Program against Tuberculosis and Leprosy. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the wok for publication.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Hakamata, M., Takihara, H., Iwamoto, T. et al. Higher genome mutation rates of Beijing lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis during human infection. Sci Rep 10, 17997 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-75028-2