Table 2 Association between HBP presentation and sex, age, family history of HBP, WtHR, BMI, PAQ-A, or KIDMED as categorised variables, or a daily breakfast-eating habit, or consumption of weight-loss products, tobacco, or alcohol.

From: Waist-to-height ratio and skipping breakfast are predictive factors for high blood pressure in adolescents

  High BP
n (%)
Normal BP
n (%)
Total
n (%)
p-value
Non-modifiable factors
Sex
 Male 443 (19.9%) 1782 (80.1%) 2225 (100%)  < 0.001a
 Female 210 (9.6%) 1967 (90.4%) 2177 (100%)
Age
 11 years 7 (13.9%) 45 (86.5%) 52 (100%) 0.0300b
 12 years 101 (13.9%) 627 (86.1%) 728 (100%)
 13 years 118 (14.2%) 712 (85.8%) 830 (100%)
 14 years 124 (15.1%) 699 (84.9%) 823 (100%)
 15 years 132 (17.0%) 644 (83.0%) 776 (100%)
 16 years 72 (11.2%) 571 (88.8%) 643 (100%)
 17 years 80 (17.5%) 378 (82.5%) 458 (100%)
 18 years 19 (20.7%) 73 (79.3%) 92 (100%)
Family clinical history of AHT
 Yes 141 (15.6%) 762 (84.4%) 903 (100%) 0.4593a
 No 512 (14.6%) 2987 (85.4%) 3499 (100%)
Modifiable factors
Categorised WtHR
 Normal weight 477 (12.5%) 3341 (87.5%) 3818 (100%)  < 0.001a
 Overweight 176 (30.1%) 408 (69.9%) 584 (100%)
Categorised BMI
 Underweight 2 (3.6%) 54 (96.4%) 56 (100%)  < 0.001b
 Normal weight 377 (11.2%) 3000 (88.8%) 3377 (100%)
 Overweight 123 (24.4%) 382 (75.6%) 505 (100%)
 Obese 151 (32.5%) 313 (67.5%) 464 (100%)
Categorised PAQ-A
 Low activity levels 206 (13.0%) 1374 (87.0%) 1580 (100%) 0.0199a
 Normal activity levels 364 (16.3%) 1874 (83.7%) 2238 (100%)
 High activity levels 83 (14.2%) 501 (85.8%) 584 (100%)
Categorised KIDMED
 Optimal diet 150 (14.9%) 855 (85.1%) 1005 (100%) 0.8007a
 Improvable diet 424 (15.0%) 2405 (85.0%) 2829 (100%)
 Poor-quality diet 79 (13.9%) 489 (86.1%) 568 (100%)
Breakfast every day
 Yes 511 (14.7%) 2956 (85.3%) 3467 (100%) 0.7322a
 No 142 (15.2%) 793 (84.8%) 935 (100%)
Weight-loss products
 Never 641 (15.0%) 3628 (85.0%) 4269 (100%) 0.1425b
 Sometimes 8 (8.2%) 90 (91.8%) 98 (100%)
 Daily 4 (11.4%) 31 (88.6%) 35 (100%)
Tobacco
 Never 605 (15.2%) 3365 (84.8%) 3970 (100%) 0.0492b
 Sometimes 33 (12.2%) 238 (87.8%) 271 (100%)
 Daily 15 (9.3%) 146 (90.7%) 161 (100%)
Alcohol
 Never 482 (15.5%) 2619 (84.5%) 3101 (100%) 0.1183b
 Sometimes 169 (13.2%) 1112 (86.8%) 1281 (100%)
 Daily 2 (10.0%) 18 (90.0%) 20 (100%)
Total 653 (14.8%) 3749 (85.2%) 4402 (100%)  
  1. HBP, high blood pressure; WtHR, waist-to-height ratio; BMI, body mass index; PAQ-A, Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents; KIDMED, Evaluation of the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index.
  2. Statistical tests: aχ2 test; bFisher exact test.