Table 1 Estimates of pre-breeding and post-breeding migration by Black-eared kites GPS-tagged in Delhi during 2014–2018.

From: GPS-telemetry unveils the regular high-elevation crossing of the Himalayas by a migratory raptor: implications for definition of a “Central Asian Flyway”

Migration component Na Pre-breeding migration
Mean ± SE (range)
Na Post-breeding migration
Mean ± SE (range)
t P
Departure dateb 20 (16) 104.15 ± 11.57 (75—126) 17 (14) 243.65 ± 21.78 (224—258)   
Arrival dateb 20 (16) 126.25 ± 8.12 (97—155) 17 (14) 270.29 ± 40.43 (255—290)   
Speed (km/day) 17 (14) 198.98 ± 14.82 (77.02—267.89) 14 (12) 151.00 ± 12.56 (71.36—253.91) 2.41 0.023
Active speed (km/travelling day) 17 (14) 236.59 ± 7.99 (182.99—302.42) 14 (12) 198.52 ± 8.34 (155.14—276.99) 3.28 0.003
Duration (days) 17 (14) 22.82 ± 2.67 (13—45) 14 (12) 27.14 ± 2.88 (12—47) 1.08 0.281
Travelling days 17 (14) 17.00 ± 0.94 (13—25) 14 (12) 19.00 ± 1.33 (11—27) 1.26 0.218
Number of stopovers
Days of stopover
17 (14)
17 (14)
1.65 ± 0.34 (0—5)
5.82 ± 2.03 (0—28)
14 (12)
14 (12)
2.64 ± 0.41 (0—5)
8.14 ± 1.98 (0—28)
1.88
0.81
0.071
0.426
Route length (km) 17 (14) 3926.56 ± 108.37 (3333.1- 4620.5) 14 (12) 3668.18 ± 151.68 (2963.71—4767.74) 1.42 0.167
  1. aNumber of migration episodes (number of tagged individuals).
  2. bJulian date (1 = 1 January).
  3. Differences in mean values were tested by means of a t-test and significant results are highlighted in bold.