Table 2 Design factors of DOE and the ranges.

From: Optimization for maximum specific energy density of a lithium-ion battery using progressive quadratic response surface method and design of experiments

Design factors Lower bound Upper bound
Anode thickness (μm) 40 250
Cathode thickness (μm) 40 250
Separator thickness (μm) 10 100
Anode porosity 0.2 0.6
Cathode porosity 0.2 0.6
Separator porosity 0.2 0.6
Anode particle size (μm) 5 20
Cathode particle size (μm) 2 20