Figure 4 | Scientific Reports

Figure 4

From: Early origin and global colonisation of foot-and-mouth disease virus

Figure 4

An updated hypothesis on the global colonisation of FMDV. The ancestor of Euro-Asiatic FMDV strains likely originated in the Mediterranean region, and spread to Europe, facilitated by the raise in goods and livestock transportation from the Mediterranean countries to Northern Europe between the thirteenth and fifteenth century. The foundation for the European global trade between Europe and the rest of the world was laid during the Age of Discovery (fifteenth–seventeenth century), and this likely helped the disease to disperse from Europe to Asia. The cattle shipment by European immigrants from Europe to Argentina in the late 1860s was likely responsible for the emergence of FMD in the South America continent. The SAT strains, on the other hand, are very well confined to the African continent. They likely have been circulating in wild and farm African animals for a long time, which play an important part in maintenance of the disease in the African continent. It is unclear, however, if the disease itself was first developed in the African continent then spread to Mediterranean countries (dotted upward arrow) or the other way around (dotted downward arrow). Further studies are required to distinguish between these two completing hypotheses. The world map was created by using OpenStreetMap V 0.3.4 R package (https://cran.r-project.org/package=OpenStreetMap).

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