Table 2 Results of 400 runs for different load impedances at various frequencies using the proposed AQGA and CGA tuning approaches.

From: Improved adaptive impedance matching for RF front-end systems of wireless transceivers

Frequency band ZLoad (Ω) Train epochs Relative error (%) VSWR
CGA f = 1.4 GHz
(1,350.5–1,515 MHz)
(satellite services)
25 + j50 332,542 2.45 × 10−4 1.2492
25 − j50 525,278 2.97 × 10−5 1.3548
50 + j75 576,985 6.55 × 10−3 1.2254
50 − j75 548,481 4.92 × 10−5 1.1458
75 + j100 188,094 1.58 × 10−4 1.2094
75 − j100 179,792 2.14 × 10−3 1.1983
AQGA f = 1.4 GHz
(1,350.5–1,515 MHz)
(satellite services)
25 + j50 270 9.86 × 10−6 1.1368
25 − j50 328 3.71 × 10−6 1.0557
50 + j75 360 2.07 × 10−3 1.1521
50 − j75 345 1.21 × 10−4 1.0692
75 + j100 290 1.70 × 10−5 1.0958
75 − j100 265 1.55 × 10−4 1.1410
CGA f = 2.3 GHz
(2,350–2,390 MHz)
(LTE networks)
25 + j50 31,347 2.26 × 10−3 1.4059
25 − j50 21,942 3.98 × 10−3 1.2602
50 + j75 20,563 1.62 × 10−3 1.3058
50 − j75 30,725 2.81 × 10−3 1.4069
75 + j100 19,497 4.20 × 10−4 1.3693
75 − j100 22,051 5.95 × 10−4 1.1690
AQGA f = 2.3 GHz
(2,350–2,390 MHz)
(LTE networks)
25 + j50 256 6.83 × 10−4 1.2275
25 − j50 291 3.12 × 10−5 1.1508
50 + j75 275 1.03 × 10−4 1.1821
50 − j75 213 3.55 × 10−4 1.2551
75 + j100 272 4.07 × 10−4 1.1953
75 − j100 219 6.73 × 10−5 1.0565
CGA f = 3.4 GHz
(3,410–3,600 MHz)
(radar systems)
25 + j50 28,653 3.24 × 10−3 1.3429
25 − j50 32,961 4.01 × 10−2 1.2630
50 + j75 25,061 3.98 × 10−4 1.2918
50 − j75 19,239 1.53 × 10−3 1.7392
75 + j100 24,716 3.65 × 10−3 1.2530
75 − j100 15,630 2.64 × 10−4 1.3709
AQGA f = 3.4 GHz
(3,410–3,600 MHz)
(radar systems)
25 + j50 189 2.02 × 10−4 1.2093
25 − j50 267 6.16 × 10−3 1.1196
50 + j75 345 3.86 × 10−3 1.1532
50 − j75 220 5.37 × 10−4 1.0514
75 + j100 198 1.17 × 10−3 1.1090
75 − j100 254 4.29 × 10−5 1.0961
CGA f = 4.0 GHz
(3,700–4,200 MHz)
(satellite earth stations)
25 + j50 234,975 6.32 × 10−3 1.3095
25 − j50 286,531 4.61 × 10−2 1.2783
50 + j75 295,514 2.84 × 10−4 1.2590
50 − j75 301,860 1.90 × 10−3 1.4061
75 + j100 287,461 3.66 × 10−3 1.3068
75 − j100 310,639 2.38 × 10−4 1.2831
AQGA f = 4.0 GHz
(3,700–4,200 MHz)
(satellite earth stations)
25 + j50 429 7.51 × 10−4 1.1009
25 − j50 401 1.39 × 10−3 1.1891
50 + j75 385 1.01 × 10−4 1.2029
50 − j75 393 4.42 × 10−4 1.3007
75 + j100 438 2.58 × 10−3 1.2117
75 − j100 419 5.98 × 10−5 1.1503
CGA f = 5.0 GHz
(5,350–5,925 MHz)
(WiFi band)
25 + j50 28,537 2.47 × 10−3 1.4280
25 − j50 19,620 3.85 × 10−3 1.3891
50 + j75 15,352 1.29 × 10−4 1.3631
50 − j75 22,385 5.38 × 10−2 1.3284
75 + j100 29,716 4.50 × 10−3 1.2801
75 − j100 18,630 2.48 × 10−3 1.4429
AQGA f = 5.0 GHz
(5,350–5,925 MHz)
(WiFi band)
25 + j50 247 1.24 × 10−4 1.1503
25 − j50 209 4.92 × 10−4 1.2745
50 + j75 278 1.01 × 10−5 1.1645
50 − j75 192 1.58 × 10−2 1.1716
75 + j100 273 3.54 × 10−4 1.1550
75 − j100 203 4.97 × 10−4 1.3509