Figure 1 | Scientific Reports

Figure 1

From: Lipopolysaccharide administration for a mouse model of cerebellar ataxia with neuroinflammation

Figure 1

Inflammatory response increased by LPS injection in the cerebellum. (a) The expression levels of Iba1 (for microglia) and GFAP (for astrocytes) in the cerebellum 1 day and 7 days after LPS injection. Iba1: **p = 0.008 and ***p < 0.001 versus CON, $$$p < 0.001 versus PBS (7 days), ##p = 0.004 versus PBS (1 day) (n = 3 per group, F(4,10) = 26.219). GFAP: ***p < 0.001 versus CON, $$$p < 0.001 versus PBS (1 day), ###p < 0.001 versus PBS (7 days) (n = 3 per group, F(4,10) = 150.249) (b) The expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β and TNFα, in the cerebellum 1 day and 7 days after LPS injection. IL-1β: **p = 0.002 versus CON, $p = 0.014 versus PBS (7 days), ##p = 0.003 versus PBS (1 day) (n = 3 per group, F(4,10) = 11.034). TNFα: **p = 0.0027 and *p = 0.035 versus CON (n = 3 per group, t(4) = − 6.632 and t(4) = − 3.136). (c) A sagittal histologic section of the mouse cerebellum. The box shows the cerebellar cortex about which the section shown in (d) and (e) was taken. We use “MCL” to represent the molecular cell layer, “PCL” to represent the Purkinje cell layer, and “GCL” to represent the granule cell layer. (d) The expression pattern between microglia (green) and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNFα; red) in cerebellum 1 day and 7 days after LPS injection (Scale bar = 50 μm). (e) The expression patterns of astrocytes (green) and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNFα; red) in the cerebellum at 1 day and 7 days after LPS injection. IL-1β and TNFα expression was significantly increased by activated microglia in the cerebellum after LPS injection compared to levels in the controls, but were rarely colocalized with astrocytes (arrowheads). Scale bar = 50 μm. All values are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation (SD). Statistical significance tested with one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post-hoc analysis (a and b; IL-1β) and two-sided paired t-test (b; TNFα). The membranes were initially cut according to the molecular weight size of proteins. The images of blots were displayed in cropped format, and original blots of (a) and (b) with cropped demarcation of membranes are shown in Supplementary Fig. 2.

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