Table 1 Survival analysis (Cox regression, using STATA with familial clustering) for optimism, pessimism, combined optimism/pessimism and depression scores with sex, and with sex, BMI, alcohol intake and smoking status as additional predictors.

From: Pessimism is associated with greater all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, but optimism is not protective

 With sexWith sex, BMI, alcohol, smoking
N totalN deathsHR95% CIp valueN totalN deathsHR95% CIp value
All-cause
Optimism score2,8191,0360.9750.913–1.0420.4582,4448750.9950.925–1.0690.882
Pessimism score2,7429941.1341.065–1.2078.85 × 10–52,3758401.1601.083–1.2422.04 × 10–5
Combined score2,6899690.9120.855–0.9730.00562,3408240.9110.848–0.9790.011
Depression score2,7549931.0851.015–1.1600.0172,3938421.0811.006–1.1620.034
Optimism score2,5909121.0130.941–1.0890.7382,2657811.0500.969–1.1380.235
Pessimism score1.1131.038–1.1930.00251.1511.068–1.2402.33 × 10–4
Depression score1.0540.980–1.1340.1571.0570.977–1.1420.166
Any cancer
Optimism score2,8193131.0630.937–1.2050.3422,4442701.0690.943–1.2130.296
Pessimism score2,7423031.0310.921–1.1530.5982,3752601.0180.896–1.1580.783
Combined score2,6892971.0180.903–1.1480.7662,3402541.0320.910–1.1710.626
Depression score2,7543021.0360.914–1.1750.5792,3932651.0030.865–1.1630.964
Optimism score2,5902851.0670.930–1.2240.3572,2652481.0740.934–1.2350.318
Pessimism score1.0460.923–1.1860.4791.0450.907–1.2030.544
Depression score1.0380.905–1.1910.5961.0160.867–1.1910.845
Cardiovascular
Optimism score2,8192370.9280.811–1.0610.2742,4441950.9460.816–1.0970.463
Pessimism score2,7422261.1961.045–1.3680.00932,3751891.2471.075–1.4470.0035
Combined score2,6892220.8580.752–0.9800.0242,3401870.8550.737–0.9910.038
Depression score2,7542201.1460.991–1.3260.0672,3931831.1480.990–1.3300.067
Optimism score2,5902041.0060.867–1.1670.9392,2651731.0550.897–1.2400.519
Pessimism score1.1641.001–1.3540.0491.2231.038–1.4420.016
Depression score1.1150.964–1.2910.1441.1160.965–1.2910.140
Other causes
Optimism score2,8193570.9840.881–1.1000.7812,4442980.9960.881–1.1250.943
Pessimism score2,7423371.1381.018–1.2720.0222,3752811.1801.041–1.3370.0096
Combined score2,6893250.9180.821–1.0260.1332,3402750.9040.795–1.0260.118
Depression score2,7543431.1130.996–1.2440.0602,3932831.1371.003–1.2900.045
Optimism score2,5903011.0260.901–1.1680.6962,2652551.0590.920–1.2180.424
Pessimism score1.0790.950–1.2240.2421.1180.972–1.2860.119
Depression score1.0860.956–1.2340.2031.1140.970–1.2790.126
  1. Firstly optimism, pessimism and depression scores individually, and then with all three together.
  2. HR, hazard ratio per 1 SD change in score; 95% CI, 95% confidence intervals for HR.