Table 2 Consequences of past (a) and future (b) losses of kelp forests in Australia on carbon standing stock and sequestration rates.

From: Substantial blue carbon in overlooked Australian kelp forests

Region Period Driver Coastline (km) Cover loss (%) Area loss (ha) Carbon stock loss (Mg C) Sequestration rate loss (Mg C year−1)
(a)
 Western Australia1 2005–2015 Marine heatwave 800 43.0 97,438 310,949 38,242
 South Australia2 1968–2007 Coastal pollution 20 60 6,179 19,720 2,425
 Victoria3 1958–2014 Warming and drought 40 85.8 17,665 56,375 6,933
 Tasmania4 2001–2017 Sea urchin grazing 80 11.8 4,861 15,513 1,908
 New South Wales5 2002–2010 Tropical fish grazing 25 88.7 11,414 36,425 4,480
 Australia (total)    965   140,187 447,371 55,020
Region Projections Driver Coast-line (km) Cover loss (%) Area loss (ha) Carbon stock loss (Tg C) Sequestration rate loss (Tg C year−1)
(b)
 Australia6 2100 Warming (RCP2.6) 8,000 49 34,981 8.1 1.0
 Australia6 2100 Warming (RCP6.0) 8,000 71 50,686 11.8 1.4
  1. 1Wernberg et al.32, 2Connell et al.33, 3Carnell and Keough35, 4Ling and Keane37, 5 Vergés et al.38, 6Martínez et al.39. Calculations are provided in the Supplementary Data.