Table 1 Baseline characteristics.

From: Postoperative statin treatment may be associated with improved mortality in patients with myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery

 Entire populationIPTW
No statin (n = 3,778)Statin (n = 1,331)ASDNo statin (n = 4,053.1)Statin (n = 1,067.8)ASD
Peak postoperative troponin level, ng/L1588 (± 14,853)4,386 (± 28,861)12.22,731 (± 17,881)3,848 (± 24,027)5.3
Preoperative statin treatment685 (18.1)1,142 (85.8)> 991632.1 (40.3)483.8 (45.3)10.2
Male2,183 (57.8)849 (63.8)12.32,459.2 (60.7)630.0 (59.0)3.4
Age63.8 (± 14.6)70.8 (± 9.8)56.366.1 (± 13.9)69.0 (± 10.7)23.3
Diabetes1937 (51.3)809 (60.8)19.22,215.9 (54.7)639.2 (59.9)10.5
Hypertension2,277 (60.3)1,146 (86.1)61.02,828.0 (69.8)890.0 (74.6)18.7
Current smoking327 (8.7)126 (9.5)2.8339.0 (8.4)125.2 (11.7)11.2
Current alcohol572 (15.1)164 (12.3)8.2580.9 (14.3)138.7 (13.0)3.9
Chronic kidney disease455 (12.0)233 (17.5)15.4711.1 (17.5)190.8 (17.9)0.8
History of coronary artery disease571 (15.1)648 (48.7)77.21,087.8 (29.3)351.6 (32.9)7.8
History of heart failure122 (3.2)73 (5.5)11.1162.7 (4.0)55.7 (5.2)5.7
History of stroke294 (7.8)168 (12.6)16.0476.8 (11.8)135.9 (12.7)2.9
History of arrhythmia351 (9.3)165 (12.4)10.0395.5 (9.8)127.7 (12.0)7.1
History of heart valve disease76 (2.0)30 (2.3)1.774.6 (1.8)14.7 (1.4)3.7
Active cancer1,500 (39.7)490 (36.8)5.91,580.4 (39.0)333.2 (31.2)16.4
Operative variables
ESC/ESA surgical high risk1,006 (26.6)297 (22.3)10.01,079.3 (25.7)298.8 (28.0)3.0
Operative duration, h3.76 (± 2.94)2.79 (± 1.92)39.13.41 (± 2.73)3.00 (± 1.92)17.6
Emergency operation1,043 (27.6)240 (18.0)23.0964.8 (23.8)341.3 (32.0)18.3
General anesthesia3,315 (87.7)1,105 (83.0)13.43,454.5 (85.2)912.6 (85.5)0.7
RBC transfusion619 (16.4)120 (9.0)22.3563.0 (13.9)142.1 (13.3)1.7
Continuous infusion of inotropics1619 (42.9)419 (31.5)23.71523.8 (37.6)405.7 (38.0)0.8
Postoperative in-hospital care 
Coronary revascularization44 (1.2)122 (9.2)36.8362.3 (8.9)48.4 (4.5)17.7
Intensive care unit2,831 (74.9)933 (70.1)10.83,048.8 (75.2)803.7 (75.3)0.1
ECMO1 (0.0)02.30.7 (0.0)01.9
Continuous renal replacement therapy54 (1.4)9 (0.7)7.448.6 (1.1)6.8 (0.6)5.2
Ventilator999 (26.4)209 (15.7)26.6910.4 (22.5)228.8 (21.4)2.5
Discharge medication  
Antiplatelet agent863 (22.8)788 (59.2)79.61519.3 (37.5)457.8 (42.9)11.0
Beta blocker637 (16.9)540 (40.6)54.31,045.7 (25.8)279.2 (26.1)0.8
Calcium-channel blocker901 (23.8)484 (36.4)27.51,231.3 (30.4)359.7 (33.7)7.1
RAAS inhibitor662 (17.5)605 (45.5)63.11,152.3 (28.4)324.3 (30.4)4.3
Direct oral anticoagulant151 (4.0)81 (6.1)9.6177.6 (4.4)52.4 (4.9)11.0
Warfarin263 (7.0)120 (9.0)7.6307.3 (7.6)128.6 (12.0)15.0
  1. Data are presented as n (%) or mean (± standard deviation).
  2. IPTW inversed probability treatment weighting, ASD absolute standardized difference, ESC European Society of cardiology, ESA European Society of Anaesthesiology, ECMO extracorporeal membranous oxygenation, RAAS renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system.