Table 4 Within-person associations between adolescents’ use of WhatsApp and well-being.

From: The effect of social media on well-being differs from adolescent to adolescent

 Categorical associations
Use versus no use
(N participants = 63; N assessments = 2,154)
Dose–response associations
Duration of use
(N participants = 62; N assessments = 1,179)
Model 5A
Fixed effects
Model 5B
Random effects
Model 6A
Fixed effects
Model 6B
Random effects
B(SE)pβB(SE)pB(SE)pβB(SE)p
Fixed part
Intercept5.60(.10) < .0017.625.60(.11) < .0015.69(.09) < .0017.625.69(.09) < .001
Assessment (WP).08(.04).023.09.09(.04).019.09(.04).049.09.09(.04).047
Passive use (WP).16(.05).001.14.22(.09).022.18(.05) < .001.14.18(.04) < .001
Active use (WP).06(.07).364.06.02(.09).810− .05(.06).444.06− .05(.05).258
Random part
σ2 residual (WP)1.16(.11) < .001 1.15(.11) < .0011.10(.11) < .001 1.10(.12) < .001
σ2 between-person (BP).54(.08) < .001 .54(.08) < .001.47(.09) < .001 .47(.09) < .001
σ2 passive use (BP)    .04(.08).296     < .01(.01).440
σ2 active use (BP)    .02(.05).360     < .01(.01).310
Model fit
Deviance6,615.246,613.473,590.863,591.40
AIC6,627.246,629.473,602.863,607.40
BIC6,661.296,674.873,633.303,647.98
Chi2 (df) 1.14 (2).566 2.81 (2).245
  1. For investigating the categorical associations, the passive and active use predictors were dummy coded (passive use: 0 = no passive use of WhatsApp; 1 = passive use of WhatsApp; and active use: 0 = no active use of WhatsApp; 1 = active use of WhatsApp, respectively). WP = within-person; BP = between-person. All predictors were person-mean centered. Models for the duration of use only include assessments during which participants had used WhatsApp, either actively or passively. p-values of the fixed part of the model are two-sided, p-values of the random part of the model are one-sided.