Table 2 Within-person associations between adolescents’ overall use of social media and well-being.

From: The effect of social media on well-being differs from adolescent to adolescent

 Categorical associations
Use versus no use
(N participants = 63; N assessments = 2,155)
Dose–response associations
Duration of use
(N participants = 63; N assessments = 1,474)
Model 1A
Fixed effects
Model 1B
Random effects
Model 2A
Fixed effects
Model 2B
Random effects
B(SE)pβB(SE)pB(SE)pβB(SE)p
Fixed part
Intercept5.60(.10) < .0017.635.60(.10) < .0015.66(.09) < .0018.055.66(.09) < .001
Assessment (WP).09(.04).020.09.09(.04).015.07(.04).094.07.06(.04).091
Passive use (WP).14(.09).111.06.14(.09).114.03(.03).270.04.03(.03).243
Active use (WP).14(.08).096.05.15(.08).058.07(.04).040.07.07(.04).053
Random part
σ2 residual (WP)1.16(.11) < .001 1.13(.11) < .0011.10(.11) < .001 1.08(.11) < .001
σ2 between-person (BP).54(.08) < .001 .54(.08) < .001.49(.09) < .001 .50(.09) < .001
σ2 passive use (BP) .11(.05).015  < .01(.01).333
σ2 active use (BP) .05(.06).209 .01(.01).221
Model fit
Deviance6,616.586,603.864,470.034,467.78
AIC6,628.586,619.864,482.034,483.78
BIC6,662.636,665.264,513.804,526.14
Chi2 (df) 17.52 (2) < .001 2.62 (2).270
  1. For investigating the categorical associations, the passive and active use predictors were dummy coded (passive use: 0 = no passive use of social media; 1 = passive use of social media; and active use: 0 = no active use of social media; 1 = active use of social media, respectively). WP = within-person; BP = between-person. All predictors were person-mean centered. Models for the duration of use only include assessments during which participants had used social media, either actively or passively. p-values of the fixed part of the model are two-sided, p-values of the random part of the model are one-sided.