Table 1 This table incorporates the parameters for measured and simulated inhalation airflow, in the study subjects.

From: Numerical evaluation of spray position for improved nasal drug delivery

 Patient IDPhysically measured tidal volume (ml/sec.)Physically measured minute ventilation (Liters/min.)Physically measured inhalation rate * (Liters/min.)Target airflow rate in the numerical simulations ** (Liters/min.)Simulated airflow rate in the numerical simulations ** (Liters/min.)Simulated pressure drop from nostril inlet to nasopharyngeal outlet (Pascals)
μσμσ
NPM11694.3890.0412.171.1524.3422.9422.95−10.70
NPM2
NPM32922.80136.409.230.8818.4617.4017.39−15.95
NPM43932.29248.3311.812.1423.6222.2622.30−18.88
NPM5
  1. Symbols: σ = standard deviation, μ = mean, * inhalation rate is considered to be twice the minute ventilation, ** target simulated airflow is 94.24%62 of the measured rate, to account for influence of the subjects’ awareness of recording of the breathing process. Note that the tidal volume is a measure of the lung volume representing the volume of air displaced between normal inhalation and exhalation, without application of any extra effort. The minute ventilation (air inhaled per minute) is computed from the inspiratory phase of a breath33,63.