(a) In silico model: CT-based digital reconstruction of subject 1’s airway. Panels (b) and (c) respectively show the sagittal and coronal views of the solid 3D-printed replica of the digital model. Note that the solid models comprise a soft outer nose (to mimic the pliability of a real nose) and a posterior hard plastic part. The anterior and posterior 3D-printed components in each model were designed to fit snugly together. Panels (d) and (e) depict the experimental setup for in vitro measurement of sprayed deposits in anatomic solid models.