Table 2 CO2 utilization using hard coal fly ashes.

From: The potential of FBC fly ashes to reduce CO2 emissions

Type of carbonationReferencesResult of process
Suspension – CO223carbonation efficiency of 83.5% ‒ final CO2 3.2%, i.e. 32 g CO2/kg fly ashes
Suspension – CO22479% carbonation efficiency
Aqueous carbon sequestration process25amorphous calcium carbonate
Aqueous carbonation26capacity to sequester CO2: 26 kg/CO2/Mg fly ashes
Accelerated mineral carbonation273.86 ± 1.28 CaCO3
Solid – CO2280.29−4.29 mmol CO2 capture/g fly ashes
Solid – CO229CO2 uptake: 18.2 wt. %
Suspension – CO23010.71−27.05 kg of CO2 per ton of fly ashes
Suspension – CO231CaCO3 content – 2.27% CO2 absorption: 0.42–1.31 g CO2/100 g
Suspension – CO2320.43–12.82% of CO2 binding CO2 absorption: 2.15–9.54 g CO2/100 g
Suspension – CO25CO2 absorption: 1.4–8.8 g CO2/100 g
CO2 ‒ FA/brine slurry33CO2 sequestration potential: 36.47 and 71.84 kg of CO2/Mg fly ashes
Fly ashes brine dispersion – CO234CO2 content – 2.75–6.5% wt.
Two-step indirect aqueous carbonation35CO2 sequestration: 0.008 kg of CO2/kg of fly ashes
Indirect mineral carbonation36CO2 storage capacity: 31.1 mg CO2/g FA