Spatio-temporal representation of the house mouse dispersal in Southwestern Asia and Eastern Europe. (a) Current distribution of the three commensal subspecies from the studied area: M. m. domesticus, M. m. musculus, M. m. castaneus and the three non-commensal species: M. spicilegus, M. macedonicus and M. cypriacus. Localisation of the archaeological sites studied. Circles filled in grey identify sites where aDNA and radiocarbon analyses have been performed (See the supplementary note S2 for details). 1: Qaleh Bozi, 2: Eskaft-e Gavi, 3: Ali Tappeh, 4: Ganj Dareh, 5: Ali Kosh, 6: Tol-e Nourabad, 7: Tepe Zagheh, 8: Ulug Depe, 9: ‘Ain Mallaha, 10: Mureybet, 11: Jerf El Ahmar, 12: Netiv Hagdud, 13: Dja’dé, 14: Akrotiri-Aetokremnos, 15: Klimonas, 16: Kissonerga-Mylouthkia 1, 17: Kissonerga-Mylouthkia 2, 18: Cape Andreas-Kastros, 19: Khirokitia, 20: Cafer Höyük, 21: Çatalhöyük, 22: Norsun Tepe, 23: Ovçular Tepesi, 24: Chishko, 25: Kohne Pasgah Tepesi, 26: Mavropigi, 27: Xirolimni, 28: Theopetra, 29: Avgi, 30: Koutroulou Magoula, 31: Dikili Tash, 32: Alepotrypa, 33: Drakaina, 34: Sarakenos, 35: Bucșani La Pod, 36: Vinča-Belo Brdo, 37: Ayia Triada, 38: Akrotiri, 39: Mochlos, 40: Malia, 41: GSE, 42: Chania, 43: Uluburun shipwreck (See supplementary Note S2 for details). (b–f) Diachronic mapping of the dispersal of the M. musculus lineages identified by numerical taxonomy performed using GMM on the first lower molar: M. m. domesticus (deep blue full circle), M. m. musculus (light blue full circle), M. spicilegus/M. macedonicus (red full circle) and M. cypriacus (green full circle). Direct radiocarbon dating at 95.4% probability (#) and the ancient mtDNA Cytochrome b taxonomic identification (*) are provided (See the Supplementary Table S6 and S12 for details). Each square represents a specific aDNA identification and its color corresponds to three taxonomic units: M. m. domesticus (deep blue square), M. m. musculus (light blue square), and M. spicilegus/M. macedonicus (red square). Map adapted from (https://d-maps.com) by D.G. Kuriyama. Figure generated by TC and KP in Adobe Illustrator CS6.