Table 1 Characteristics of the subjects according to maternal H. pylori infection.

From: Maternal H. pylori is associated with differential fecal microbiota in infants born by vaginal delivery

 Maternal H. pylori (+)Maternal H. pylori (−)P value
Total mother-newborn dyadn = 11n = 11 
Maternal age, years ± SD30.9 ± 4.829.3 ± 6.30.5
Delivery route, n (%)
   Vaginal7 (63.6)6 (54.5)0.7
   C-section4 (36.4)5 (45.5) 
Maternal nutritional status, n (%)
   Underweight, BMI < 18.51 (9.1)1 (9.1)0.5
   Normal, BMI: 18.5–24.91 (9.1)4 (36.4) 
   Overweight, BMI: 25–29.96 (54.5)4 (36.4) 
   Obese, BMI >301 (9.1)2 (18.1) 
Group B streptococcus (GBS) infection, n (%)1 (9.1)1 (9.1)1
Maternal use of antibiotics in the last 3 months, n (%)0 (0)2 (18.2)ND
Newborn gender, n (%)
   Female4 (36.4)8 (72.7)0.2
   Male7 (63.6)3 (27.3) 
Newborn weight, kg ± SD3.4 ± 0.13.5 ± 0.10.5
Newborn height, cm ± SD50 ± 0.550 ± 0.40.9
Feeding, n (%)
   Exclusively breastfeeding8 (72.7)8 (72.7)1
   Predominantly breastfeeding3 (27.3)3 (27.3) 
   Exclusively formula-fed0 (0)0 (0) 
Inhabitants per household, n ± SD3.9 ± 0.34.4 ± 0.70.5
Socioeconomic status*, n (%)
   High4 (36.4)3 (27.3)0.6
   Middle7 (63.6)8 (72.7)
  1. *Socioeconomic status according to ESOMAR score. ND: no-determinate statistically.