Table 4 Modelled management scenarios that yielding a population growth rate of λ ≈ 1 (i.e., a stable population).

From: How climate change and wildlife management affect population structure in wild boars

Management scenarioLJHJYearlingsAdultsSumλ
(190)(89)(122)(100)(501)
unselectiveHMR (%)30303030 1.01
No.57273730151
NH1HMR (%)40402525 1.00
No.76364125168
NH2HMR (%)0802525 0.99
No.0714125137
NH3HMR (%)10002525 1.00
No.19004125246
Juveniles (unselectively)HMR (%)757500 0.98
No.1426700209
Light juvenilesHMR (%)100000 1.25
No.190000190
Heavy juvenilesHMR (%)010000 1.15
No.0890089
YearlingsHMR (%)00800 0.97
No.0098098
AdultsHMR (%)000100 0.97
No.000100100
  1. Harvesting classes are light (LJ) and heavy juveniles (HJ), yearlings and adults. The number of animals within an exemplary population structured according to the stable stage distribution identified under favourable conditions without hunting mortality is given in parenthesis. For each management-scenario the proportion (i.e., the hunting mortality rate, HMR) and the actual numbers of individuals that need to be harvested (No.) to achieve a stable population (i.e., λ ≈ 1) are given as well as the overall sum of individuals over all classes and the exact λ under the respective scenario. The management scenarios light juveniles and heavy juveniles did not result in a stable population even when 100% of the respective individuals were harvested (i.e., λ 1).