Left: Occurrences of information gains for all words presented to the participants, with the dashed line marking the split between words associated with high and low information gain. On the right side of the plot are displayed example words ordered by their information gain (descending). Centre: Grand average event-related potential at the Pz channel for words associated with high/low information gain. The shaded areas represent a 95% confidence interval. The dashed line marks the onsets of the next stimulus. Right: A scalp topography of the differences of ERPs between low information gain words and high information gain words for the time interval 250–1000 ms post-stimuli. Each contour line marks a 1 μV difference in voltage. The Pz electrode is highlighted with a rectangle.