Table 5 Correlation of Gram stain, standard culture and direct NGS16S.

From: Comprehensive evaluation of complex polymicrobial specimens using next generation sequencing and standard microbiological culture

SpecimenGram StainaPredominant by culturebPredominant by direct NGS16Sc
PMNOrganisms
BAL011+ viridans streptococciviridans streptococci
BAL022+Rare GPCviridans streptococciVeillonella species
BAL034+3+ GPCviridans streptococciviridans streptococci
BAL041+ Actinomyces odontolyticusPrevotella species*
BAL05  Staphylococcus, coagulase negativePrevotella species*
BAL063+ no growth reportedviridans streptococci
BAL071+ no growth reportedno organisms detected
BAL082+1+ GPCviridans streptococciVeillonella species/Prevotella species*
BAL092+2+GPC/2+GNRHaemophilus parainfluenzaHaemophilus species
BAL102+1+ GPCAspergillusviridans streptococci
BAL11  no growth reportedno organisms detected
BAL123+ no growth reportedMegasphaera species*
BAL13  viridans streptococciPrevotella species*
BAL142+2+ GPCStaphylococcus aureusStaphylococcus aureus
BAL152+ no growth reportedno organisms detected
BAL16rare viridans streptococciviridans streptococci
BAL173 viridans streptococciTropheryma whipplei
BAL182+Rare GPCno growth reportedno organisms detected
BAL19rare1+ GPC/1+ GNRNeisseria/RothiaPrevotella species*
BAL201+ viridans streptococciviridans streptococci
  1. aPMN = Polymorphonuclear neutrophils; GPC = Gram positive cocci, GNR = Gram negative rods.
  2. bSee Table 1 for all culture results.
  3. cSee Supplementary Table S1 for all NGS16S results. Anaerobes are noted with an*.