Sensing mechanism of the lipid-based electrochemical sensor. (A) Bare MSEs produce the maximum electrochemical signal from a redox reporter in solution (red dots); inset: typical CV curve for KFeCy in solution. (B) DMPC membranes deposited on the MSEs passivate the electrode surface, preventing redox processes to occur; inset: CV with no signal. (C) When the sensor is exposed to a solution containing membrane-disrupting factors, the membrane degradation exposes the electrode surface and increasing redox signals are measured over time as shown in the inset. Gold surface topography and lipid layer drawings not shown to scale.