Table 2 Demographic description and comparison of baseline parameters in the two groups. Independent t-test (continuous variables) or Fischer’s exact test (categorical variables) was used to test for the significance of differences of means.

From: Urethral Instillation of Povidone-Iodine Reduces Post-Cystoscopy Urinary Tract Infection in Males: A Randomized Controlled Trial

CategoryControl GroupIntervention GroupP value
Mean age (years)58.2 ± 11.655.0 ± 11.50.057
Mean hemoglobin (g/dl)12.3 ± 1.512.0 ± 1.30.056
Mean length of cystoscopy (min)9.47 ± 2.09.8 ± 2.10.193
Reason for cystoscopy
     a) Follow up for bladder cancer94960.497
     b) Follow up for upper tract urothelial cancer20 
Co-morbidities
     Hypothyroidism250.44
     Coronary artery disease760.74
     Hypertension890.79
     Benign prostatic obstruction760.74
     Diabetes mellitus10120.82
Swab culture
     a) Any bacterial growth except aerobic spore bearers84810.533
     b) Uro-pathogenic bacterial growth (excluding aerobic spore bearers and staphylococci species)34310.76