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Figure 1

From: Geoarchaeological evidence of the AD 1642 Yellow River flood that destroyed Kaifeng, a former capital of dynastic China

Figure 1

Kaifeng and the Yellow River. (a) Topography of the North China Plain. (b) SRTM 90 m DEM of the area around Kaifeng, note that the elevation of the Yellow River is higher than Kaifeng (Data available from the U.S. Geological Survey). (d) The city walls of Kaifeng (solid line is the Song dynasty wall, dashed line is the Ming /Qing dynasty wall) and sample locations Xinzhengmen (S1), Yongning Wangfu (S2), Dichen Xiyuan (S3), Xinjiekou (S4), and Yulongwan (S5) (Imagery from Google Earth Pro, Digital Globe). (d) The super elevated channel of the Yellow River hanging above Kaifeng, with the tallest building in medieval Kaifeng, the Iron Pagoda, for scale.

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