Table 1 Comparison of demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters for SCA patients with ACS and without ACS.

From: Predictors of impending acute chest syndrome in patients with sickle cell anaemia

ParametersCases (92)Controls (20)P value
Median age in years (IQR)28(7.75)26(6.25)0.432#
Sex, Total cases, n, M: F63:2912:8 
Median age in years, males (IQR)27(7) 
Median age in years, females (IQR)31(5) 
Clinical Features:
Prior ACS, n(%)54(58.7)11(55)0.761#
HU therapy, n(%)51(55.4)10(50)0.634#
Chest/Back pain, n(%)83(90.2)15(75)0.062#
Fever [>37.80°C], n(%)81(88)13(65)0.01#
Cough, n(%)38(41.3)6(30)0.319#
Tachycardia [>100], n(%)74(80.4)14(70)0.296#
Hypotension [<80], n(%)71(77.2)14(70)0.542#
Tachypnea [>25], %25(27.2)1(5)0.03#
Reduced Pulse oximetry
O2 saturation [<95], n(%)67(72.8)5(25)0.0001#
Crepitations, n(%)52(56.5)00.000#
Wheeze, n(%)10(10.9)00.121#
Radiological Findings:
Asplenia, n(%)51(55.4)3(15)0.001#
Pleural effusion n(%)76(82.6)00.000#
On X-ray chest, Mild n(%)64(84.2)  
Moderate n(%)12(15.8)  
On CT Scan, n(%)49(53.3)  
Multilobar atelectasis on CT scan, n(%)83(90.2)00.000#
Multilobar atelectasis on X Rays, n(%)56(60.8)0 
Laboratory Parameters:
Median Hb nadir, g/L [95% CI]7.8[7.6–8.1]9.1[8.3–9.7] 0.0007$0.0007$
Median WBC count basal, X109/L [95% CI]9.4[9.3–10.9]7.4[7.1–9.7] 0.058$0.058$
Median WBC count Max, X109/L [95% CI]17.6[16.8–19.3]10.2[10.1–14.1] 0.0001$0.0001$
Median platelet count basal, X109/L [95% CI]382[354–416]343[226–459]0.356$
Median platelet count nadir, X109/L [95% CI]227[219–283]175[180–391]0.439$
Median retic count, % [95% CI]5.5[5.3–8.0]4.7[4.2–4.9]0.206$
Median basal HbF, % [95% CI]7.0[6.9–90.]7.6[6.5–11.7]0.441$
S.LDH at admission, u/L [RR 135–225]745[542–872]487[356–619]0.131$
S.LDH max, u/L1030[658–1287]569[410–708]0.09$
CRP at admission, mg/L [RR 0–5]43[42–95.5]71.5[49.7–104.7] 0.962$0.962$
CRP max, mg/L180[153–203]107[78.9–159.7] 0.066$0.066$
AST, u/L [RR 0–40]49.7[49.3–66.4]38.8[33.3–46.1] 0.127$0.127$
ALT, u/L [RR 0–41]36.6[36.1–62.4]30[25.2–46.9] 0.373$0.373$
S. bilirubin, μg/ml [RR 0–17]44.2[44.1–66.6]35[28.1–45.2]0.056$
Use of NIV, n(%)15(16.3)00.047#
Abnormal blood cultures, n(%)4(4.3)00.872#
Simple blood transfusions, n(%)58(63)4(20)0.016#
Exchange blood transfusions, n(%)61(66.3)2(10)0.001#
  1. Key: #-chi-squared test; $-unpaired Student’s t test; IQR- interquartile range, RR- reference range, HU- hydroxyurea, ACS- acute chest syndrome, Hb- Haemoglobin, WBC- White blood cell count, NIV - non-invasive ventilation, LDH-lactic dehydrogenase, CRP- C-reactive protein, AST- aspartate transaminase, ALT- alanine transaminase.