Table 2 Baseline characteristics of vegetarian and non-vegetarian groups.

From: The risk of urinary tract infection in vegetarians and non-vegetarians: a prospective study

 Non-vegetariansVegetariansP-value
mean (stda)/n (%)mean (stda)/n (%)
Number of participants6467 (66.5%)3257 (33.5%) 
Age, years50.1 (9.69)51.2 (9.48)<0.001
Sex  <0.001
  Male2677 (41.4%)899 (27.6%) 
  Female3790 (58.6%)2358 (72.4%) 
Educational level  <0.001
  Elementary school or less1277 (19.8%)792 (24.3%) 
  Secondary school4503 (69.7%)2086 (64.0%) 
  College or higher683 (10.5%)383 (11.7%) 
Ever smoking1126 (17.4%)351 (10.8%)<0.001
Ever alcohol-drinking1064 (16.5%)375 (11.5%)<0.001
Hypertension1154 (17.9%)512 (15.7%)0.008
Diabetes466 (7.2%)161 (4.9%)<0.001
Hyperlipidemia218 (3.4%)79 (2.4%)0.010
Disease conditions predisposing to UTI
  Hyperplasia/tumor of urinary tract451 (7.0%)160 (4.9%)<0.001
  Urolithiasis743 (11.5%)319 (9.8%)0.011
  Urine retention132 (2.0%)77 (2.4%)0.306
  Renal failure135 (2.1%)49 (1.5%)0.049
  Immune dysfunction43 (0.7%)23 (0.7%)0.821
  1. aStd: standard deviation.