Table 1 Results of pattern evaluation of Echinacea 10−2 samples prepared with different numbers of succussion strokes (NS = 100, 10, or 0) and systematic positive control (SPC) experiments (on the left) and F-test of the two-way analysis of variance for the factors NS and day (on the right). Mean values with different letter codes (a, b, c) are significantly different (p < 0.05).

From: Impact of succussion on pharmaceutical preparations analyzed by means of patterns from evaporated droplets

 Echinacea 10−2SPCFactorEchinacea 10−2SPC
NSNMeanNSNMeanFpFp
GLD100
10
0
138
127
134
22.28 a
22.11 a
20.63 b
10
10
10
140
133
133
7.78 a
8.23 a
7.54 a
NS
133
Interaction
6.25
81.77
2.15
0.0021**
<0.0001***
0.0740 ns
1.40
3.00
2.64
0.3694 ns
0.0515 ns
0.0332*
Entropy100
100
138
127
134
3.74 a
3.72 a
3.48 b
10
10
10
140
130
133
3.11 a
3.13 a
3.04 a
NS
Day
Interaction
3.05
119.19
1.39
0.0484*
<0.0001***
0.2369 ns
0.38
17.17
3.43
0.6840 ns
<0.0001***
0.0089**
FP100
10
0
113
105
113
8.58 × 103 a
9.96 × 103 a
8.23 × 103 a
10
10
10
140
133
133
6.20 × 103 a
6.68 × 103 a
5.64 × 103 a
NS
Day
Interaction
2.02
68.20
2.66
0.1348 ns
<0.0001***
0.0327*
1.12
21.18
1.88
0.3281 ns
<0.0001***
0.1137 ns
LCFD100
10
0
113
105
113
0.79 b
0.94 a
0.78 b
10
10
10
140
133
133
0.61 a
0.64 a
0.60 a
NS
Day
Interaction
6.47
31.90
1.94
0.0018**
<0.0001***
0.1032 ns
0.74
29.31
0.62
0.4760 ns
<0.0001***
0.6482 ns
LAC100
10
0
113
105
113
0.40 a
0.33 b
0.33 b
10
10
10
140
133
133
0.40 a
0.42 a
0.46 a
NS
Day
Interaction
8.39
10.01
2.64
0.0003***
<0.0001***
0.0340*
1.79
2.93
0.32
0.1684 ns
0.0543 ns
0.8625 ns
  1. LEGEND: N – number of patterns; NS – number of succussion strokes; GLD – grey level distribution; FP – foreground pixels; LCFD – local connected fractal dimension; LAC – lacunarity; * – p < 0.05; ** – p < 0.01; *** – p < 0.001; ns – not significant.