Table 4 Cox Mixed Effects regression results for latency to react. Showing p-values, the coefficient (β) ± the standard error, hazard ratio (exp(β)) and the 95% confidence interval for a model including trial 1–6 and a model including only 1 trial. Trial 1, age group young and sound category neutral are set as reference categories. The significant values (p < 0.05) are represented in bold.

From: Age-related positivity effect on behavioural responses of dogs to human vocalisations

 Trial 1–6Trial 1
p-valβ(SE)exp(β)95% CIp-valβ(SE)exp(β)95% CI
Trial 20.65  0.11 ± 0.241.110.69;1.70
Trial 30.61−0.13 ± 0.250.880.54;1.34
Trial 40.43  0.19 ± 0.241.210.71;1.77
Trial 50.024−0.56 ± 0.250.570.37;0.94
Trial 60.0001−1.04 ± 0.260.350.25;0.67
Age group old0.084−0.43 ± 0.250.640.52;0.890.0064−1.11 ± 0.410.330.16;0.74
Sound category positive0.40  0.14 ± 0.171.150.83;1.600.76000.13 ± 0.421.140.52;2.46
Sound category negative0.56  0.10 ± 0.171.110.78;1.520.0380−0.99 ± 0.480.370.16;0.93