Test room set-up. The owner was positioned in the back of the room and the leashed dog was laying down in front of them. The experimenter was standing next to camera 1, 1.25 meters away from the owner and dog. Camera 2 was positioned behind the speakers, which were positioned 2 meters in front of the owner. The owner was reading a magazine and listening to music via headphones to minimise their effect on the dog’s reaction.