Table 1 Results of the independent two-tailed t-tests. t- and p-values, and the corresponding degrees of freedom (df), are reported for each range of distance within each gelatine phantom.

From: Experimental evaluation of a self-propelling bio-inspired needle in single- and multi-layered phantoms

PrototypesGelatine phantomRanget-valuedfp-value
W6-D0.25 vs. W6-D0.125G51−0.857160.404
2−9.91116<0.001
3−9.51816<0.001
G5-101−3.010170.008
2−5.05717<0.001
3−4.79517<0.001
G5-10-51−0.393160.6993
2−5.48316<0.001
3−5.68016<0.001
W6-D0.25 vs. W3-D0.25G5-101−3.605170.002
2−8.52017<0.001
3−9.41117<0.001
  1. Note. A negative t-value indicates that the mean value of the first prototype is smaller than the second. p < 0.001 is annotated in bold.