Modelled annual survival (±1 s.e.) of male (solid line, filled points) and female (dashed line, open points) Raso larks according to time since marking (as a proxy for age). Estimates are for birds without claw damage; those exhibiting damaged claws had a lower intercept (β = −0.35 ± 0.14). Shading indicates 95% confidence limits about the regression. Reading from the top, the four grey-shade boundaries represent male upper confidence limit, female upper confidence limit, male lower confidence limit, and female lower confidence limit.