Table 1 Characteristics of patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

From: Azithromycin combination therapy for community-acquired pneumonia: propensity score analysis

 All patients n = 1131β-lactam monotherapy n = 952Azithromycin combination therapy n = 179P value
Male795 (70.3)676 (71.0)119 (66.5)0.25
Age (y)77.0
[69.0–84.0]
78.0
[69.0–84.0]
74.0
[65.0–82.5]
0.001
Smoking status   0.27
Current + Past726 (64.2)618 (64.9)108 (60.3) 
Never400 (35.4)330 (34.7)70 (39.1) 
Unknown5 (0.4)4 (0.4)1 (0.5) 
Comorbidity    
Chronic heart disease361 (31.9)293 (30.8)68 (38.0)0.07
COPD284 (25.1)248 (26.1)36 (20.1)0.11
Diabetes mellitus225 (19.9)187 (19.6)38 (21.2)0.61
Cerebrovascular disease182 (16.1)165 (17.3)17 (9.5)0.008
Chronic kidney disease98 (8.7)71 (7.5)27 (15.1)0.002
Malignancy90 (8.0)78 (8.2)12 (6.7)0.65
Chronic liver disease58 (5.1)45 (4.7)13 (7.3)0.19
Vital signs
Body temperature (°C)37.8
[37.0–38.6]
37.8
[37.0–38.5]
37.8
[37.0–38.7]
0.67
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)129
[113–147]
129
[113–147]
128
[112–145]
0.76
Heart rate (beats/min)97
[84–110]
97
[84–110]
100
[86–113]
0.10
Respiratory rate (breaths/min)22
[18–25]
21
[18–25]
24
[19–26]
0.30
Laboratory examinations
Albumin (g/dL)3.2
[2.8–3.6]
3.2
[2.8–3.6]
3.3
[2.9–3.7]
0.005
BUN (mg/dL)19.0
[14.0–26.0]
19.0
[14.0–25.0]
18.0
[13.0–28.5]
0.93
Creatinine (mg/dL)0.83
[0.66–1.06]
0.82
[0.66–1.05]
0.84
[0.66–1.14]
0.23
Na (mmol/L)137
[135–139]
137
[135–139]
137
[135–140]
0.18
Hematocrit (%)36.7
[33.1–40.0]
36.6
[33.1–40.0]
37.1
[33.5–40.5]
0.25
Platelet (×104/μL)20.8
[15.5–28.0]
21.2
[15.9–28.6]
18.4
[13.9–24.5]
 < 0.001
WBC (×103/μL)11.4
[8.4–15.2]
11.6
[8.7–15.5]
10.2
[7.5–13.9]
0.005
CRP (mg/L)116
[52–181]
113
[50–176]
127
[57–212]
0.05
Performance status§   0.01
0278 (24.6)220 (23.1)58 (32.4) 
1584 (51.6)499 (52.4)85 (47.5) 
2217 (19.2)190 (20.0)27 (15.1) 
330 (2.7)22 (2.3)8 (4.5) 
422 (1.9)21 (2.2)1 (0.6) 
Aspiration pneumonia280 (24.8)251 (26.4)29 (16.2)0.003
Bacteremia40 (3.5)35 (3.7)5 (2.8)0.46
Pre-antibiotic therapy317 (28.0)267 (28.0)50 (27.9)1.00
CURB-65 (score)   0.07
0106 (9.4)78 (8.2)28 (15.6) 
1356 (31.5)307 (32.2)49 (27.4) 
2426 (37.7)363 (38.1)63 (35.2) 
3200 (17.7)167 (17.5)33 (18.4) 
440 (3.5)34 (3.6)6 (3.4) 
53 (0.3)3 (0.3)0 (0) 
PSI (score)96.0
[80.0–118.0]
96.0
[80.0–118.0]
94.0
[76.5–121]
0.28
PSI (class)   0.01
I15 (1.3)10 (1.1)5 (2.8) 
II143 (12.6)114 (12.0)29 (16.2) 
III318 (28.1)267 (28.0)51 (28.5) 
IV503 (44.5)440 (46.2)63 (35.2) 
V152 (13.4)121 (12.7)31 (17.3) 
IDSA/ATS severe criteria   0.57
Yes284 (25.1)236 (24.8)48 (26.8) 
No847 (74.9)716 (75.2)131 (73.2) 
Duration of hospitalization (days)11.0
[8.0–18.0]
12.0
[8.0–18.0]
10.0
[7.0–19.0]
0.20
In-hospital mortality62 (5.5)53 (5.6)9 (5.0)0.86
30-day mortality53 (4.7)48 (5.0)5 (2.8)0.25
  1. Data are presented as median [interquartile range] or n (%).
  2. COPD was diagnosed using the GOLD definition29. Patients who were already diagnosed and treated as COPD at other hospitals and had emphysema on chest computed tomography were included.
  3. This included patients with malignant disease that was active at the time of admission or was diagnosed within 1 y of admission.
  4. §The criteria of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group were used30.
  5. ATS, American Thoracic Society; BUN, blood urea nitrogen; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CRP, C-reactive protein; CURB-65, confusion, urea > 7 mmol/L, respiratory rate ≥30 breaths/min, low blood pressure (systolic <90 mmHg or diastolic ≤60 mmHg), and age ≥65 y; IDSA, Infectious Diseases Society of America; Na, sodium; PSI, Pneumonia Severity Index; WBC, white blood cell.