Table 1 Results of the minimal adequate model showing that alarming great reed warblers were parasitized more often by common cuckoos than conspecifics which were less keen to alarm human observers during regular nest visits.

From: Host alarm calls attract the unwanted attention of the brood parasitic common cuckoo

Fixed effectsEstimateSEz valueWald χ2dfpVariance
(Intercept)−10.5041.342−7.82361.1971<0.001 
Host alarm call2.7481.2222.2485.05410.024 
Time of nest visit−0.8620.457−1.8853.55110.059 
Random effects
Site: Nest identity      428.600
Observer identity      0.000
  1. Values for the fixed factor ‘host alarm call’ indicate the difference in the probability of brood parasitism of alarming hosts compared to non-alarming great reed warblers, while ‘time of nest visit’ is a continuous variable, standardized with Z-transformation to mean = 0 and SD = 1, showing the effect of the time of the nest visit on the probability of parasitism. The full model from which the minimal adequate model was derived is presented in Table S1 of the Supplementary Material.