Table 1 Coefficients of variation (in %) for measurements (L: mesiodistal length, B: buccolingual breadth) of the lower and upper teeth in skull samples of seven living bear species and in fossil populations of the extinct Ursus etruscus and Ursus deningeri from a number of Early and Middle Pleistocene sites of Europe.

From: The bears from Dmanisi and the first dispersal of early Homo out of Africa

SPECIES/SUBSPECIES (n)cLcBp4Lp4Bm1Lm1Bm1TBm2Lm2Bm3Lm3BCLCBP4LP4BM1LM1BM2LM2B
Ursus maritimus (6♀, 9♂, 2?)12.612.35.57.33.25.04.23.04.39.37.413.914.67.08.56.34.17.45.3
Helarctos malayanus (2♀, 2♂, 8?)9.911.57.710.54.48.08.16.38.89.923.419.212.89.46.44.76.57.76.0
Melursus ursinus (5♀, 4♂, 5?)12.610.96.66.35.69.513.56.38.56.58.711.510.96.510.84.36.78.59.2
Ailuropoda melanoleuca (5♀, 2♂, 5?)13.58.74.05.11.812.13.43.49.35.32.414.39.48.53.93.22.210.22.5
Ursus arctos (13♀, 14♂, 9?)18.317.010.916.69.916.110.38.815.510.410.519.717.511.512.512.210.311.510.0
U. arctos beringianus (2♀, 1♂, 1?)19.613.19.98.68.811.710.78.110.612.613.927.720.27.18.17.711.913.68.6
U. arctos gyas (1♀, 2♂)10.811.28.24.64.929.46.23.02.57.78.412.324.413.713.831.516.129.015.7
U. arctos horribilis (2♀, 2♂, 3?)14.617.29.110.78.110.610.79.411.110.08.616.014.413.511.27.59.56.68.2
U. arctos isabelinus (2♀, 2♂, 3?)14.710.36.25.64.84.54.55.27.07.76.611.210.87.615.87.18.16.77.6
U. arctos pruinosus (2♀, 2♂)15.511.310.425.37.28.37.74.96.88.76.68.19.77.07.14.73.22.74.4
U. arctos syriacus (2♀, 2♂)13.29.46.12.34.22.83.77.02.82.33.828.826.116.718.18.614.715.113.8
Ursus thibetanus (4♀, 4♂, 6?)12.514.812.78.99.632.38.66.420.612.88.812.314.49.312.37.88.59.78.0
Ursus americanus (4♀, 6♂, 3?)12.711.27.57.06.28.06.47.317.68.98.014.413.97.98.67.15.67.47.6
Ursus etruscus All samples (135/121)23.516.910.09.36.49.710.88.811.110.69.817.913.620.620.89.78.28.69.1
U. etruscus Saint Vallier (25/22)9.48.37.41.93.64.55.03.32.41.83.312.612.58.914.8  7.99.1
U. etruscus Dmanisi (35/24)14.213.59.17.86.311.713.79.111.28.16.712.917.428.223.35.38.112.55.1
U. etruscus Val d’Arno (44/29)9.512.613.19.97.0 12.37.2 10.28.416.16.95.212.013.16.13.44.4
U. etruscus Olivola (11/4)16.810.67.77.05.9 7.28.7 15.012.02.92.51.96.30.91.11.08.3
U. etruscus Pietrafitta (4/5)7.68.94.13.00.4 5.34.0  0.09.69.43.610.03.24.1  
U. etruscus Pirro Nord (9/16)       6.64.512.49.22.74.24.010.36.97.15.3 
U. etruscus Orce (8/13)  1.32.02.75.93.32.06.0    5.73.02.74.66.74.2
Ursus deningeri All samples (217/146)24.623.718.120.620.611.520.216.810.720.316.87.18.68.712.48.49.210.87.5
U. deningeri Untermassfeld (8)3.25.25.03.85.1 8.53.2 4.310.5        
U. deningeri Trinchera Dolina (11/28)  9.27.64.76.9 5.14.711.76.9  6.95.63.8 5.6 
U. deningeri Vallonnet (128/92)6.55.07.98.56.49.59.87.09.06.27.9  8.29.96.78.89.06.5
U. savini (4)22.411.79.210.56.3 11.89.6 19.410.3        
U. deningeri Stránslá Skála (3)  9.39.85.1 7.13.6 11.89.2        
U. deningeri Aragó (47/22)9.86.27.77.75.66.56.56.78.810.46.05.74.36.68.59.75.710.77.7
U. deningeri Château (4)11.413.010.323.66.4 12.36.3 9.96.5        
U. deningeri Azé (4)  0.67.44.0 7.010.6 8.710.4        
U. deningeri Cueva Mayor (4)10.04.618.525.77.2 15.311.6 15.712.6        
U. deningeri Sima de los Huesos (4/4)18.717.715.57.85.0 7.18.0 12.85.8  8.816.54.512.09.09.4
  1. Abbreviations: c, lower canine; p, lower premolar; m, lower molar; C, upper canine; P, upper premolar; M, upper molar. Sample sizes in the case of extant species indicate the number of sexed individuals; for fossil sites, they refer to the lower and upper dentition. Data from33,38,40,42,77,78,79,80,81,84 and J.M.-M., B. F. (unpublished data).