Reported statistics of extracted sand volumes within the VMD for the year 2018. Red numbers denote estimates for the provinces Dong Thap, Vinh Long and Tien Giang, based on 2018 field surveys. Provincial borders were available via the Humanitarian Data Exchange (HDX) (https://data.humdata.org/), provided by the Pacific Disaster Center (PDC). Sand mining data was collected from the responsible DONREs, the SMCD and the MONRE. Illustration was generated using Matlab 2018a (http://mathworks.com).