Changes in air temperature, MSLP, zonal-mean zonal wind and eddy momentum flux convergence associated with extreme El Niño due to the ocean mean state difference. 99-member ensemble mean anomalies of temperatures, MSLP, and upper tropospheric zonal winds and eddy momentum flux convergence for pElNiño’ and wElNiño’. (a) Temperature anomalies (pElNiño’; colour shading) overlaid by its climatology (pClim; contours). (b) Same as (a) expcept wElNiño’ and wClim. The colour shading interval is 0.2 °C, and the contour interval is 10 °C. (c,d) Same as (a,b) except MSLP anomalies. The magenta dashed lines are drawn at 60°S as a reference for pressure dipole anomalies related to SAM. The colour shading interval is 0.4 hPa. (e,f) Same as (a,b) except zonal-mean zonal wind anomalies. The colour shading interval is 0.5 m/s, and the contour interval is 10 m/s. (g,h) Same as (a,b) except anomalies of eddy momentum flux convergence. The colour shading interval is 0.1 m/s/day, and the contour interval is 1 m/s/day. Eddy momentum flux convergence anomalies obtained from model interpolated data over the Antarctic continent are masked. Stippling indicates that the differences between pElNiño’s and wElNiño’ are statistically different at the 5% level.